For example, small organic particles from fish cage or resuspended from the sediment can be used by suspension feeders, while larger particles sinking at the bottom of the sea can be consumed by deposit feeders
; seaweeds can absorb the dissolved nutrients generated by the cultured species or released from sediment through water flow exchange (Yokoyama & Ishihi, 2010; Yokoyama, 2013).
Increasing nutrient loads enhance the production of benthic and/or pelagic microalgae (Graneli and Sundback 1985; Howarth, 1988) and, hence, increase the amount of available food for benthic grazers, suspension feeders, and deposit feeders
and ultimately for carnivores.
The macrobenthic community was dominated by subsurface and surface deposit feeders
(36% and 30% Figure 4(a)).
Benthic invertebrates were designated as carnivores, scavengers, suspension feeders, or deposit feeders
using the classification scheme developed by Walker and Bambach (1974).
Impact of grazing and bioturbation of marine benthic deposit feeders
on dinoflagellate cysts.
Benthic deposit feeders
are likely to gain due to the increase of organic matter in the system (Elmgren et al., 1983; Berge, 1990).
Particle size-selection of two deposit feeders
: the amphipod Corophium volutator and prosobranch Hydrobia ulvae.
We will use these data to 1) identify dominant species in the bay and assess spatial and temporal trends in these taxa, 2) characterize differences in community structure (including species richness, total biomass, total abundances, and representation of suspension and deposit feeders
) along the back-bay/front-bay gradient, 3) describe the population dynamics of Musculista senhousia in the subtidal of the bay by examination of size-freque ncy data, and 4) identify changes in biotic communities potentially attributable to this invader.
Increased densities of benthic macroinvertebrates, especially deposit feeders
, have been found in dense zebra mussel colonies in lakes (Dermott et al., 1993; Stewart and Haynes, 1994; Wisenden and Bailey, 1995).
Identification of the food resources assimilated by detritivores in general and deposit feeders
in particular is a difficult problem for ecologists (Lopez et al.
The sediments also house several hundred species of benthic invertebrates, or deposit feeders
, which burrow some 50 centimetres in search of food.
Moreover, the feeding activities of macrobenthic deposit feeders
(animals that feed by ingesting sediment) can alter the abundance, metabolic activity and composition of the microbial community (Hargrave, 1970; Morrison and White, 1980; Bianchi and Levinton, 1981), which in turn can be linked (through nutrient cycling, for example) with density-dependent consumer effects on resource quality and supply.