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1. the head of the government in several European countries
2. US the president of a university or, in some colleges, the chief administrative officer
3. Brit and Canadian the honorary head of a university
4. US (in some states) the presiding judge of a court of chancery or equity
5. Brit the chief secretary of an embassy
6. Christianity a clergyman acting as the law officer of a bishop
7. Archaic the chief secretary of a prince, nobleman, etc.



(Russian, kantsler; from German Kanzler).

(1) In the feudal states of medieval Europe, the highest official, whose duties included directing the royal chancellery and archive and keeping the state seal.

(2) In tsarist Russia, state chancellor (gosudarstvennyi kantsler) was the highest civil rank. According to the table of ranks of 1722, it corresponded to the military rank of field marshal (general-feVdmarshal).

(3) In Germany from 1871 to 1945, the Reichskanzler was the head of the government; from 1934 he also exercised the powers of head of state.

(4) In the Federal Republic of Germany and in Austria, the federal chancellor is the head of the government.

(5) In Great Britain, the chancellor of the exchequer is the minister of finance; the lord high chancellor is the chairman of the House of Lords.

(6) In Switzerland, the chancellor of the Federation is the leader in the secretariat to the highest federal executive and administrative bodies (Federal Council and Federal Assembly).



(Reichskanzler). (1) In the German Empire from 1871 to 1918, the sole minister of all of Germany and chairman of the Bundesrat. Appointed by the emperor, the chancellor was the executive head of the empire.

(2) In the Weimar Republic of 1919–33, the head of government, appointed by the president with the approval of the Reichstag. In 1933 so-called presidential cabinets were created, which in circumvention of the constitution did not rely on the confidence of the parliament. From 1933 to 1945, Hitler was chancellor, and in 1934 he consolidated the powers of the head of government and state, abolishing the office of president.

References in periodicals archive ?
1) Indeed this dichotomy between the wish to create a conventionally melodic peal against the protection of a unique musical heritage led many to criticise Deputy Chancellor Ockleton's decision.
The former deputy chancellor drove the point home by adding: "We understand [implying the whole SPD?
at and the Austrian Deputy Chancellor and Infrastructure Minister and the EU Information Society and Media Commissioner have recently spoken out against the proposed tax.
He became deputy chancellor for academic and research programs in 1989 and was interim chancellor in 1991 prior to being selected to his current position in 1992.
The Finnish deputy Chancellor of Justice Jaakko Jonkka has criticised prosecutors for making decisions that should be made by a judge.
After handing the trophy to Barrichello, Schumacher then took the second place trophy from the Austrian Deputy Chancellor.
Chancellor Ramon Cortines, at the urging of his deputy chancellor, opened his private residence for a reception to welcome public school and university participants in the project.
Manning, Deputy Chancellor for Commonwealth Medicine at UMass Medical School, and member of the UHealthSolutions board of directors.
SPEDx had also never worked with individual districts to analyze local trends, according to founder and CEO Richard Nyankori, former deputy chancellor of special education for Washington D.
Mr George Fong, Deputy Chancellor of Federation University of Australia, will be joined by a diverse and high-calibre group drawn from sectors that include education, health, business, agriculture, manufacturing, social services, tourism, renewable energy, regional development and the arts.
He first served as a counselor for student services and has since held numerous jobs including deputy chancellor, assistant deputy chancellor and dean.
Eurozone countries are split on the way forward with Germany's Deputy Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel saying fresh negotiations with Greece were "difficult to imagine.

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