Derealization


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Related to Derealization: dissociation

derealization

[dē‚rē·ə·lə′zā·shən]
(psychology)
Loss of the sense of the reality of people or objects in one's environment.

Derealization

 

a sense of change or unreality in one’s environment that appears in certain mental illnesses (for example, schizophrenia, cyclothymia, epilepsy).

While experiencing derealization, the outside world is perceived as foreign, artificial, changed, and sometimes distant, vague, and dreamlike. Time seems too fast, or else it seems to have stopped. Unfamiliar surroundings seem to have been seen before and, conversely, familiar situations and places seem strange, as though seen for the first time. Derealization is often accompanied by melancholy, fear, and confusion; it is often combined with depersonalization. It is treated by eliminating the primary illness.

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When my patient with the dissociation disorder combined with depersonalization and derealization symptoms returned for a second visit, he and I talked about establishing a basis in learning for this "crazy thing," as he called it.
The most commonly reported dissociative symptoms in our patients were talking to oneself, impaired consciousness-disorientation, pseudopsychotic delusions, and derealization.
Literature reviews today turn up the most commonly reported symptoms in patients with DID, including voices, amnesia, conversion/somatoform symptoms, first-rank symptoms (feeling emotions out of the blue), depersonalization, derealization, and subjective experiences of self-alteration.
This finding is consistent with the fact that persons with schizotypal personality styles are not only socially detached from others but also estranged from themselves in the form of depersonalization or derealization.
It incorporates "separation distress," manifested most likely as depression, depersonalization, and derealization.
This is followed by sections on the assessment of dissociation (diagnostic issues, use of scales, psychophysiological studies), on particular diagnostic classifications (depersonalization and derealization, amnesia and fugue, dissociative identity disorder [DID, formerly Multiple Personality Disorder], acute stress disorder, and responses to traumas and abuse).
Panic attack is a period of intense fear or discomfort associated with at least four of the following symptoms: shortness of breath, dizziness, tachycardia, trembling, sweating, choking, nausea, depersonalization or derealization, paresthesias, flushes or chills, chest pain, and fear of dying or loss of self-control.
Factor analysis showed that the measure has three subscales of depersonalization and derealization, amnesia and absorption and imaginative involvement (29,30).
The diagnosis of acute stress disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) requires that at least three of the following five dissociative symptoms occur within one month of the traumatic event: depersonalization (experiencing the self as an observer detached from the body), derealization (unreal surroundings of a dream-like quality), amnesia (loss of memory of the event or of subsequent time periods), numbing (loss of interest and inability to feel deeply about anything), and stupor (dulling of the senses and decreases in behavioral responsiveness).
Gunderson's system also includes a history of transient psychotic episodes, eg, temporary periods of derealization, depersonalization, paranoia, psychotic depression, or severe regression, sometimes stimulated by substance abuse or by hospitalization.