Desensitization


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Related to Desensitization: desensitization therapy

desensitization

[dē‚sen·sə·tə′zā·shən]
(communications)
Reduction in receiver sensitivity due to the presence of a high-level off-channel signal overloading the radio-frequency amplifier or mixer stages, or causing automatic gain control action.
(immunology)
Loss or reduction of sensitivity to infection or an allergen accomplished by means of frequent, small doses of the antigen. Also known as hyposensitization.
(psychology)
Relief from or removal of a mental complex.

Desensitization

 

(biology), reduction or elimination of increased sensitivity (sensitization) of the organism to repeated introduction of a foreign substance (allergen), most often protein in nature. Upon introduction into the organism of a foreign protein, a specific substance, an antibody, is formed, whose interaction with the protein when it is repeatedly introduced may produce serum sickness or other forms of allergic reactions. Sulfur preparations, aloe, antihistamines, and other antihistamine-antiserotonins possess desensitizing properties.

Desensitization as a method of treating allergic diseases is used, in particular, to prevent serum anaphylaxis from repeated injections of serum preparations (for example, antidiphtheria serum), in accordance with the method proposed in 1907 by the Russian scientist A. M. Bezredka. The method consists in injecting small concentrations of the preparation (the antigen) that produced the sensitization; as a result, a state of antianaphylaxis arises, that is, desensitization. Owing to this, the next injection of the reacting dose of the allergen does not produce anaphylaxis. Allergic diseases (for instance, bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis) are treated by specific desensitization (if the allergen causing the disease is known), nonspecific desensitization, and complex desensitization. Specific desensitization is especially effective in treating nonbacterial allergies, primarily in pollinoses (hay fever), but it is also successfully used in bacterial sensitization (for example, in treating chronic tonsillitis, tonsillogenic intoxication, and rheumatism). Specific desensitization is performed by intradermal injection of the specific allergen, beginning with a 1:1,000,000 dilution of one cutaneous dose of the specific allergen, and gradually increasing its concentration to 1:10 of one cutaneous dose (the final dilution). If the specific antigen is not found, nonspecific desensitization treatment with antihistamines (for instance, dimedrol, Diprazin, and suprastin), and hormonal preparations are used, (corticosteroid hormones, such as hydrocortisone and prednisolone) as well as physiotherapy and balneotherapy. Complex desensitization, which combines specific and nonspecific desensitizing preparations, is often used.

REFERENCES

Allergiia i allergicheskie zabolevaniia, vols. 1–2. Edited by E. Rajka. Budapest, 1966. (Translated from German.)
Rost, G. A., D. G. R. Findeisen, and I. Niemand-Andersen. Praktikum der allergischen Krankheiten. Leipzig, 1958. Pages 116–31, 196–241.

A. KH. KANCHURIN, P. P. SAKHAROV, and IU. A. FADEEV


Desensitization

 

in photography, a reduction in the light sensitivity of photographic materials under the influence of the substances adsorbed on the halide crystals of the emulsion. Most of the sensitizer dyes and a number of other substances exhibit a desensitizing effect in the range of specific sensitivity for silver halide (λ = 500 millimicrons and lower). Many antifogging agents also act as desensitizers, specifically potassium bromide and some special desensitizers (such as green pinakriptol), which selectively lower the additional sensitivity in the long-wave region. Their inclusion in the developer makes it feasible to begin to develop the sensitized materials in darkness and to end the developing under relatively strong lighting. This sequence affords visual monitoring of the process.

References in periodicals archive ?
The percentage cell deaths on CDCXM before and after desensitization for T cells were 40% and 0% (negative) respectively.
In this study the pre-rigor stage was not observed, already in the first evaluation (0 time) the fish being in full rigor, probably as a consequence of the way in which they were transported and stored before the desensitization, or even of the electroshock application, or more probably as a consequence of the synergist action of both.
Penicillin desensitization only allows for temporary tolerance of treatment; once the patient finishes treatment, the hypersensitivity returns.
This patient did not receive desensitization due to 0 MM of HLA to his donor.
Aimmune's first investigational product using CODIT, AR101 for the treatment of peanut allergy, has received the FDA's Breakthrough Therapy Designation for the desensitization of peanut-allergic patients 4-17 years of age and is currently being evaluated in Phase 3 clinical trials in ages 4-55.
The role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in medicine: addressing the psychological and physical symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences.
Two potential reasons for desensitization are that the consumer trusts the market to protect them and nothing bad has happened to them before.
Desensitization and counterconditioning should be used simultaneously to achieve the greatest benefit.
"Be aware: If you're doing desensitization and a patient reports severe abdominal pain, please check the pancreatic enzyme levels," Dr.
In this small study of 20 children who had successfully completed an oral peanut desensitization program, 16 who avoided peanuts for one month and had a peanut re-challenge had no reaction.
Only 3.4% of allergists would readminister penicillin with graded challenge or desensitization methods in patients with a history of DRESS, while 21.1% of non-allergists considered doing so.
Successful desensitization for treatment of a fixed drug eruption to allopurinol.