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a town in Austria, 16 km northeast of Vienna, in the area of which on July 5-6, 1809, during the Austro-French War of 1809, the decisive battle between the French Army of Napoleon I and the Austrian Army of the Archduke Charles took place.
After the unsuccessful battle at Aspern (8 km east of Vienna), Napoleon I withdrew his troops to Lobau Island (8-11 km southeast of Vienna) and began to prepare to inflict a final defeat on the Austrians. Having carefully prepared the crossing, on the evening of July 4, Napoleon began the fording of the Danube with a large force (170,000 men and 584 cannon) from Lobau Island to the left bank. The Austrian troops (110,000 men and 452 cannon) occupied the main position on the heights beyond the Russbach River. On July 5 persistent attacks by the French troops were repelled. Both sides lost approximately 8,000 men. On July 6 the French troops, having repulsed scattered attacks by the Austrians, took the offensive. Having achieved success on the right flank and having carried out a heavy preparatory artillery assault, Napoleon dealt a decisive battering blow with Macdonald’s column (approximately 45,000 men and 104 cannon) west of Aderkel, at the center of the enemy’s forces. Unable to reinforce his troops, Charles gave the order to retreat. Although the battle was won by Napoleon I, the pursuit of the retreating Austrians was not organized. The losses on both sides were approximately equal (about 25,000 men on each side). A truce was concluded on July 12, and the Treaty of Schönbrunn of 1809 was concluded on July 14. The battle is noteworthy for the execution of the skillful crossing of the Danube by large French forces, the massing of artillery, and the use of a deep battering combat formation.