That was the Faustian bargain between Germany and France and the rest: we'll give you the Deutsche Mark
but we will write the rules.
But sometimes we saw a general strengthening of the deutsche mark
against virtually all currencies, including others in Europe.
In 1969, Germany unilaterally revalued the Deutsche mark
With a start-up capital of 6,000 deutsche marks
and four employees, the success story started in 1949 with the result of the otto group as the world's largest mail-order group.
Samiei, 1992, "An Analysis of the Determination of Deutsche Mark
French Franc Exchange-Rate in a Discrete-Time Target-Zone Model", Economic Journal, 102:388-401
If so, a country with a high preference for price stability, say Germany, might conclude that it wants to introduce a new Deutsche mark
that would be internally more stable and externally stronger than the euro.
Eager to make a deutsche mark
, Theo rents to both and puts up a partition.
In the period of floating exchange rates a distinct dollar-D-mark polarisation was noted, whereby periods of weakness for some European currencies relative to the dollar coincided with periods of strength relative to the Deutsche mark
and vice versa.
The euro has managed to make itself the second most-used reserve currency in its three years, displacing the Deutsche mark
and well ahead of the yen and the pound.
If the company has no view on the direction of the deutsche marks
, the management can look at the forward rates and quote a deutsche mark
price for the pineapples to be paid in three months time.
Modeste explained the decline in the market resulted from problems in Germany's economy over the years, following the decline in the exchange rate of the Deutsche mark
during the last 10 years.
Of all the European Community countries, only the Netherlands and Austria managed their economies in such a way that their currencies remained unchanged vis-a-vis the deutsche mark
for more than twenty years.