Development of Organisms

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Development of Organisms


(1) Individual development, or ontogeny, is the aggregate of successive morphological and physiological changes experienced by every organism from the moment of birth to the end of life. Development is a process of closely related quantitative and qualitative rearrangements. Quantitative changes—growth—consist in increase in weight and size of the organism as a whole and of individual body parts or organs. Qualitative changes—differentiation—consist in rearrangement of structure and function of the organism and its parts and organs.

(2) Historical development, or phylogeny, of organisms and their taxonomic groups (phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, species) throughout their existence on earth. The connection between ontogeny and phylogeny is that phylogeny consists in a historical series of ontogenies that have undergone natural selection. (See alsoONTOGENY.)

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Then 800 million years ago, phosphorus began accumulating in shallow ocean areas near coastlines, apparently setting off chemical chain reactions that pumped oxygen into the atmosphere and oceans, jumpstarting the development of organisms that had more than one cell.
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This included evidence about the development of organisms that could be used in biological warfare, and the involvement of Iraqi Intelligence services in possible biological warfare activities.

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