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Related to Dhimma: Fatimid caliphate, Saadia Gaon


(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

When Muhammad launched his aggressive push to spread Islam throughout the world, his armies were instructed to allow people in conquered cities the freedom to continue their religion, especially if they were "people of the book"—Jews and Christians.

Theoretically, non-Muslims still have the right to practice their religion in Muslim-controlled societies. These people are called dhimmi (pronounced de-hem-ee).

With the resurgence of radical, fundamentalist Islam in some Near Eastern countries, however, dhimmi have sometimes found it difficult to insist on their legal rights when faced by angry mobs, cultural pressures, or repressive regimes. With Muslim rulers focusing their rhetoric on the "devil" of American materialism and imperialism, it becomes difficult to control the actions of fervent, religious zealots who consider it their duty to defend their faith and way of life by focusing their anger on targets close at hand.

This problem is not limited to Islam. Jews, especially, have been victims of similar cultural forces, and witches and American Indians can attest to the same kind of persecution at the hands of Christians.

References in periodicals archive ?
The dhimma rules were developed in the Ottoman Empire under the millet system, which began under Sultan Mehmed after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
The new formula of Aounist Dhimma seeks the replacement of submission to the strongest in numbers and in power - as it was advocated by the old Dhimma under Ottoman rule and what followed it - with the creation of new balances of sectarian powers, in which the Shiite weapons confront the Sunni economic weight and Arab reach.
With Rome's fall and Islam's rise, the Jews of Tunisia were obliged to choose between conversion or submission to the dhimma.
Shari'a principles are always derived from human interpretation of the Qur'an and Sunna, knowing and upholding Shari'a is the permanent and inescapable responsibility of every Muslim, and the traditional Shari'a notions of dhimma should evolve into a coherent and humane principle of citizenship.
Generally the more devout the ruler, the more strictly would he impose these restrictions, which could always be added to by finding more ways to distinguish the faithful from the infidel dhimma.
Protection required the payment of a special tax, dhimma.
Christians, Jews (including Samaritans), and Zoroastrians were subject to the dhimma in Middle Eastern countries, and this status was later extended to Hindus farther east.
Editor's note: The word dhimmitude, coined by Bat Ye'or in 1983, derives from the word dhimmi, the name Arab-Muslim conquers gave to non-Muslim populations who surrendered by treaty, or dhimma, to Muslim rule.
Arzt, The Role of Compulsion in Islamic Conversion: Jihad, Dhimma and Ridda, 8 BUFF.
Al principio intentaron dar un tratamiento a los musulmanes y judios similar al que ellos habian recibido de los musulmanes en el sistema de la dhimma.
It was and is unacceptable because it is, apparently contrary to the Islamic dhimma.