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(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

When Muhammad launched his aggressive push to spread Islam throughout the world, his armies were instructed to allow people in conquered cities the freedom to continue their religion, especially if they were "people of the book"—Jews and Christians.

Theoretically, non-Muslims still have the right to practice their religion in Muslim-controlled societies. These people are called dhimmi (pronounced de-hem-ee).

With the resurgence of radical, fundamentalist Islam in some Near Eastern countries, however, dhimmi have sometimes found it difficult to insist on their legal rights when faced by angry mobs, cultural pressures, or repressive regimes. With Muslim rulers focusing their rhetoric on the "devil" of American materialism and imperialism, it becomes difficult to control the actions of fervent, religious zealots who consider it their duty to defend their faith and way of life by focusing their anger on targets close at hand.

This problem is not limited to Islam. Jews, especially, have been victims of similar cultural forces, and witches and American Indians can attest to the same kind of persecution at the hands of Christians.

The Religion Book: Places, Prophets, Saints, and Seers © 2004 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The last Ottoman decree affirming the distinctive clothing for 'dhimmis' was issued in 1837 by Mahmud II.
Yet another hadith clarifies that during the life of the Prophet Muhammad, when a Muslim killed a dhimmi the Prophet ordered to execute the Muslim and it was done accordingly (Al-Qutni 2004, 157).
Maintaining Muslim armies, conducting the jihad, protecting the hajj, taxing the dhimmis, articulating the sharia and enforcing it--acts that we might take to be military and political--were for these men first and foremost works of piety.
"The collective defence function of jihad also placed important restrictions on the foreign policy powers of the Islamic State: it could not, for example, make peace on terms that allowed a non-Islamic State to continue holding Muslims or dhimmis as prisoners.
This admirable translation of Tajrid sayf al-himmah li-stikhraj ma fi dhimmat aldhimmmah (Unshething Ambition's Sword to Extract What the Dhimmis Hoard) by "an unemployed Egyptian scholar and former bureaucrat", 'Uthman ibn Ibrahim al-Nabulusi (d.
The verse that described non-Muslims as dhimmis (non-Muslim citizen of an Islamic state) was revealed in the year 631 Hijri.
During the classical centuries of Islam, persecution of dhimmis (9) was very rare.
"Our struggle is for all Christians of the world and for all the Lebanese," he said, warning against Daesh (ISIS) "which destroys our churches, undermines our role in Lebanon, and hurts our dignity and our presence in this free country." "They want us to be dhimmis, but we reject that," Bassil concluded.
Seu contexto de referencia, portanto, deve ser menos o da primeira e conflituosa triangulacao entre coptas, bizantinos e muculmanos, do que o pano de fundo dos debates religiosos com muculmanos, calcedonicos, nestorianos e judeus nos quais Severo de Hermopolis tomou lugar tanto durante a crescente inseguranca politica e economica da epoca kafurida (946-968), quanto quando dos anos de tolerancia que caracterizaram o governo xiita--"a era de ouro dos dhimmis na historia do Egito" (SAMIR, 1996, p.