Diabetes Insipidus


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Related to Diabetes Insipidus: nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, SIADH

diabetes insipidus

[‚dī·ə′bēd·ēz in′sip·ə·dəs]
(medicine)
A form of diabetes due to a disfunction of the hypothalamus.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Diabetes Insipidus

 

an endocrine disease caused by a low content of the hormone vasopressin in the blood. It is characterized by constant intense thirst and excessive excretion of urine. Diabetes insipidus patients excrete 5 to 50 liters a day of transparent urine with a very low specific gravity (1.005-1.001); the urine is odorless and contains no pathological components, including sugar (unlike the urine of diabetes mellitus patients). As a result of dehydration, diabetes insipidus patients suffer from dryness of the skin and mucous membranes, marked emaciation, general weakness, depression, vertigo and headaches, nausea, and sometimes even vomiting. Diabetes insipidus is caused by injury (owing to infection, tumor, or trauma) to the hypothalamus and pituitary, which form a unified functional system that regulates the excretion of salts and water by the kidneys. A hereditary predisposition to the disease is sometimes noted, and the trait is dominant. Treatment consists of hormonal preparations; chemotherapy is prescribed if the disease is of infectious or inflammatory origin.

REFERENCES

Atabek, A. A. Nesakharnyi diabet. Moscow, 1951. (Bibliography.)
Ginetsinskii, A. G. Fiziologicheskie mekhanizmy vodno-solevogo ravnovesiia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1963.
Leaf, A. “Diabetes Insipidus.” In Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 1. New York-London, 1960. Page 73. (Bibliography.)

L. M. GOL’BER

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Amiloride restores renal medulary osmolytes in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol.
In summary, NH is an idiopathic disease that presents with sudden-onset hypopituitarism, neural compression, diabetes insipidus and radiologic features of ischemic pituitary apoplexy.
Panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus in a patient with primary central nervous system lymphoma.
The most frequent long-term effects are: alopecia, acne, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, weight gain, polyuria, polydipsia (due to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus) and chronic renal insufficiency (mainly due to interstitial nephritis) (1,3,5,9-11).
In an analysis of 275 adults with LCH, involvement of the lungs was the highest (58.4%), followed by bone (57.3%), skin (36.9%), and central diabetes insipidus (29.6%) [2].
A water deprivation test confirmed central diabetes insipidus. A chest X-ray was unremarkable for masses or infiltrative lesions.
The differential diagnosis of polydipsia with polyuria includes primary polydipsia (PP), central diabetes insipidus (CDI), nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), and others (Table 1).
There have been two cases that reported diabetes insipidus caused by a ganglioglioma in the suprasellar region [8].

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