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Related to Diachrony: synchrony and diachrony
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(1) A set of methods of linguistics intended for the analysis of the historical development of a language.

(2) The corresponding area of general linguistics, which is opposed to synchrony. According to F. de Saussure, the subject of diachronic linguistics is the relations that connect elements in a historical sequence that is not perceived by one and the same collective consciousness—the elements replacing one another but not forming a system. The subject of synchronic linguistics is the logical and psychological relations that connect coexisting elements and form a system (how these elements are perceived by one and the same collective consciousness). C. Bally accepted Saussure’s view of synchrony and diachrony. The majority of linguists, while accepting the opposition of synchrony and diachrony itself, reject its absoluteness (the Swiss scholar A. Sechahaye, the Belgian scholar E. Buyssens, E. Coseriu). N. S. Trubetzkoy, R. O. Jakobson, and others, following Baudouin de Courtenay, believe that diachronic study does not exclude the concept of system and that synchronic description cannot entirely exclude the concept of evolution. Most modern linguists share this opinion. From the very beginning, the categorical nature of the opposition of synchrony and diachrony has been alien to Russian linguists, although this opposition is, in itself, justified as a methodological technique.


O sootnoshenii sinkhronnogo analiza i istoricheskogo izucheniia iazykov. Moscow, 1960.
Saussure, F. de. Kurs obshchei lingvistiki. Moscow, 1933. (Translated from French.)
Coseriu, E. “Sinkhroniia, diakhroniia i istoriia.” In the collection Novoe v linqvistike, issue 3. Moscow, 1963.
Budagov, R. A. Problemy razvitiia iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. Izbrannye trudy po obshchemu iazykoznaniiu, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1963. (Translated from French.)


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Therefore, this conflict between agents' habituses, the in-field struggles and the contents taught in classroom environment are demonstrations of how disinterestedness and disbelief in the principles of sustainability are actually a diachrony between the socialization processes and contents taking place in the classroom and the matrix of dispositions agents bring (their habituses).
Kitahara (1997: 5) presents Merge in a way that, to our knowledge, combines both PSR and the diachrony of Merge:
In a previous study, Gonzalez-Rivera (2009) documents the same pattern in the diachrony of Spanish: from the 13 (th) to the 15th centuries the gerund periphrasis with aorist aspect was associated with the auxiliary ir in some 96.4% of cases.
Manoliu's well-written "Pragmatic and Discourse Changes" (chapter nine), and Rosanna Somicola's rich reflections on "Romance Linguistics and Historical Linguistics: Reflections on Synchrony and Diachrony" (chapter one).
The incantatory language of Lou's reverie, saturated with Biblical diction and apocalyptic fervor, erupts into narrative chronos, into the apparent syntactic inevitability of the Shropshire world, disturbing everyday temporal sense and evoking diachrony, the rise and fall of the lapse of time itself through the ages.
In this sense, the phonemic inventory is partly shaped by diachrony and sociolinguistic forces (such as literacy and language contact).
6) The paradigm's historicity is an intersection of diachrony and synchrony.
They write: "Besides the dialogue within the discipline and between disciplines, the elaboration of the methodology of studying translation and translating points also to the need for a dialogue between diachrony and synchrony." Hence, while time-dimension makes the research more complex, both theoretically and methodologically, it also becomes a connecting approach disciplinarily, as well as interdisciplinarily.
'Done, finished, and started as reflexes of the Scottish transitive be perfect in North America: their synchrony, diachrony, and current marginalisation'.