Also found in: Acronyms.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(literally, “an official” from the Greek diakonos), a director and clerk in the offices of various administrative departments in Russia until the 18th century. There were various kinds of d’iaki; they served the sovereign, powerful feudal lords (bishops’ and monastic d’iaki served ecclesiastical lords), the city veche (popular assembly), or the administrative offices of cities and the countryside.

During the period of feudal fragmentation, the majority of d’iaki who served princes were serfs. By the 15th century, however, they were landowners and many were petty feudal lords. D’iaki made up the ranks of the state administration. Highest ranking were those with places in the Duma, the dumnye d’iaki, who first appeared in the 16th century. The d’iaki administered the offices (d’iachie izby) of central (prikazy) and local administrative bodies; they were paid a salary for their service.

Gradually, a hereditary prikaz bureaucracy was formed. Its members owed their positions to the sovereign. Closely linked with the service gentry, it supported autocracy in its struggle with the boyar aristocracy. Included among the ranks of the d’iaki were the major statesmen A. F. Kuritsyn, I. M. Viskovatyi, A. Ia. Shchelkalov, V. D. Shchelkalov, A. Ivanov, and L. Ivanov.


Leont’ev, A. K. Obrazovanie prikaznoi sistemy upravleniia v Russkom gosudarstve. Moscow, 1961.
Likhachev, N. P. Razriadnye d’iaki XVI v. St. Petersburg, 1888.
Bogoiavlenskii, S. K. “Prikaznye d’iaki XVII v.” Istoricheskie zapiski, vol. 1. Moscow, 1937.
Prikaznye sud’i XVII v. (Spisok). Moscow-Leningrad, 1946.
Eroshkin, N. P. Istoriia gosudarstvennykh uchrezhdenii dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1968.
Zimin, A. A. “D’iacheskii apparat v Rossii vtoroi poloviny XV- pervoi treti XVI v.” Istoricheskie zapiski, vol. 87. Moscow, 1971.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
"Abu Diak and Sayeh live today on very strong painkillers and they cannot stand or eat.
Diak was known for his roles in the film "Dunkirk" and legit hits "Goodnight Mrs.
Diak had an excellent chance to equalise in the second half when he was sent clear by a clever Ally Graham flick but his low shot was superbly palmed away by Dodds.
The Rock Cafe, which has giraffe skin-covered seats, and the Ven Diak are among the better ones, and there are plenty of jazz clubs, with the Merlin on Gerloczy, recommended as the funkiest.
Gautier C, Diak G, Masse S (1980) A simple model to estimate the incident solar radiation at the surface from GOES satellite data.
His Excellency Dr Ali Abu Diak, Minister of Justice thanked UNDP, UN Women and the donors for their support and welcomed UNICEF to the second phase of the programme.
The importance of these processes and interactions have been documented individually (e.g., Pan and Mahrt 1987; Oke 1987; Diak 1990; Brubaker and Entekhabi 1996; Dolman et al.
Regarding curing agents, the most used material is a hexamethylenediamine carbamate (Diak #1).
It was Evesham's only serious pot at goal in the entire game and it was no surprise when the table-topping hosts levelled after 62 minutes when Diak John scored with a fine strike.
Composition Designation Viton B-50 + 3 phr DIAK no.
Camera (color), Erik Novak, Andras Juhasz, Otto Juhasz, Marton Vizkeleti; music, Vilmos Vajdal; production designer, Istvan Diak. Reviewed at Hungarian Film Week (Experimental and Short Films), Budapest, Feb.
Shire led at half-time through Kevin Gordon's 31st minute strike but Rovers finished the stronger and Ian Diak hit the winner with 15 minutes to go.