Dialect


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dialect,

variety of a languagelanguage,
systematic communication by vocal symbols. It is a universal characteristic of the human species. Nothing is known of its origin, although scientists have identified a gene that clearly contributes to the human ability to use language.
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 used by a group of speakers within a particular speech community. Every individual speaks a variety of his language, termed an idiolect. Dialects are groups of idiolects with a common core of similarities in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. Dialects exist as a continuum in which adjacent dialects are mutually intelligible, yet with increasing isolation between noncontiguous dialects, differences may accumulate to the point of mutual unintelligibility. For example, in the Dutch-German speech community there is a continuous area of intelligibility from Flanders to Schleswig and to Styria, but with Flemish and Styrian dialects mutually unintelligible. Adjacent dialects usually differ more in pronunciation than in grammar or vocabulary. When a dialect is spoken by a large group of speakers of a language, it often acquires prestige, which leads to the development of a standard language. Some countries have an official standard, such as that promoted by the French Academy. The first linguistic dialectology focused on historical dialects, written texts serving as the basis for establishing the dialects of a language through the methods of comparative linguisticslinguistics,
scientific study of language, covering the structure (morphology and syntax; see grammar), sounds (phonology), and meaning (semantics), as well as the history of the relations of languages to each other and the cultural place of language in human behavior.
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.

The methods of modern linguistic geography began in late 19th-century Europe with the use of informants rather than texts, and resulted in the first linguistic atlases of France, by Jules Gilliéron, and of Germany, by Georg Wenker. Those techniques were refined in the United States in the preparation of the Linguistic Atlas of the United States (Hans Kurath et al., ed.) and its derivative works. In recent years linguists have become increasingly interested in social dialects, such as the languages of social groups within an urban population and the languages of specific occupations (farmers, dockworkers, coal miners, government workers) or lifestyles (beatniks, drug users, teenagers, feminists). In the United States much work has been done in the area of black English, the common dialect of many African Americans. See also slangslang,
vernacular vocabulary not generally acceptable in formal usage. It is notable for its liveliness, humor, emphasis, brevity, novelty, and exaggeration. Most slang is faddish and ephemeral, but some words are retained for long periods and eventually become part of the
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.

Bibliography

See H. Orton and E. Dieth, ed., Survey of English Dialects (1962–70); H. B. Allen and G. N. Underwood, Readings in American Dialectology (1971); R. H. Bentley and S. D. Crawford, ed., Black Language Reader (1973); H. Kurath, Studies in Area Linguistics (1973); P. Trudgill, Dialects in Contact (1986); C. M. Carver, American Regional Dialects (1987).

Dialect

 

a type of language used in the speech of a people of a given language who, as a rule, are from a small territorially unified area. Dialect shares the basic elements of structure with the language of which it is a variant but differs from it in several specific features on various levels of language structure. For example, on the phonetic level, akan’e and tsokan’e are dialects of Russian. A group of similar dialects that have particular differences may unite to form a larger dialect, such as the Olonetskii dialect of the northern Great Russian speech.


Dialect

 

a variant of a language that is used as a means for communicating with people who are connected by a close territorial, social, or professional community. A territorial dialect is always a part of another entire dialect of a language, a part of the language itself; therefore, it is always opposed to another dialect or dialects. Small dialects combine into larger dialects. The largest of these may be called subdialects, and the smallest may be called accents. Territorial dialects have differences in sound structure, grammar, word formation, and vocabulary. These differences can be small, so that the speakers of different dialects of a language (for example, the dialects of the Slavic languages) can understand each other; the dialects of other languages can differ so greatly that communication between speakers is complicated or impossible (for example, the dialects of German or Chinese).

Modern dialects are the result of a centuries-long development. Throughout history the breakdown, unification, and regrouping of dialects have occurred in connection with the change of territorial unions. The boundaries of modern dialects may reflect the existence of a past boundary between different territorial unions (states, feudal lands, or tribes). The territorial disunion of the individual tribes and lands of the slave-owning or feudal state facilitated the development of dialectal differences among those tribes or on those lands. The eras of capitalism and socialism have broken down the old territorial boundaries within the state, leading to the leveling of dialects and to their transformation into a vestigial category. The social heterogeneity of society appears in the social differentiation of language. Social dialects are understood to be the professional languages of hunters, fishermen, miners, shoemakers, and so on, which differ from the common language only in vocabulary; group, or corporative, languages; the jargon, or slang, of schoolchildren, students, sportsmen, soldiers, and other primarily youthful groups; and arbitrary (secret) languages and argots (of déclassé elements, traveling artisans, and merchants).

L. L. KASATKIN

dialect

[′dī·ə‚lekt]
(computer science)
A version of a programming language that differs from other versions in some respects but generally resembles them.
References in periodicals archive ?
While the following analysis will draw comparisons with Kristensson's (1987) findings, the area which has been surveyed for each dialect feature is wider than that studied by Kristensson, to allow for the possibility that the PTRs will show a wider geographical spread of a dialect feature than apparent in Kristensson's data.
Mr Etheridge, aged 43, a carer for his disabled wife Star, believes it is very important to keep the Black Country heritage alive and to ensure the dialect lives on for generations to come.
Summary: The United Arab Emirates teems with a gamut of spoken native dialects that are apparently spread geographically among the emirates making up the UAE.
Compiled by Raees Rampuri and published by Khuda Bakhsh Library, Patna, in 1995, the dictionary reflects the historical fact that the Afghan and Pathan tribes had settled here centuries ago and lent their vocabulary to local dialects of Urdu.
Previously, he says, he had taken the dialect of the West Riding for granted.
These studies have aided in establishing the legitimacy of African American English as a language variation (Wolfram, 1998), have helped those in practice to make distinctions between language differences and language disorders or deficits (Seymour, Bland-Stewart, & Green, 1998), and have provided information resulting in a rich corpus of features of the dialect among children (e.
In an interview with the Cyprus News Agency on Wednesday, Georgiou explained that over the years the Greek Cypriot dialect had evolved and found new roles in modern society.
PHP is a server side scripting dialect and the most utilized programming dialect as a part of today's chance by the organizations.
The smart dictionary has been launched as a smart phone application so researchers can find the meaning of any word from the local dialect and even find out how to pronounce it.
Previously, scholars argued that supposed evidence found in 18th and 19th century dialect dictionaries proved that the Bard used Warwickshire, Midlands or Cotswold dialects in his writing.
Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997]), and Baznaye (Hezy Mutzafi, "The Neo-Aramaic dialect of Maha Khtaya d-Baz: Phonology, Morphology, and Texts," JSS XLV/2 [2000]: 293-322) have previously been documented, although the documentation of the latter two variants differs in some respects from those documented by Talay, as their informants were not from the Khabur region and they had developed under the influence of other Neo-Aramaic dialects.