Diatomite


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to Diatomite: diatomaceous earth, perlite

diatomite

[dī′ad·ə‚mīt]
(geology)
Dense, chert-like, consolidated diatomaceous earth.

Diatomite

 

(diatomaceous earth, infusorial earth, kieselguhr, mountain meal), a sedimentary rock consisting primarily of the shells of diatoms. It is usually friable or weakly cemented and light gray or yellowish in color. Small spheres (globules) of opal of nonorganogenic structure and detrital and argillaceous minerals may be found in diatomite in different quantities. Chemically, diatomite consists of 96 percent hydrated silica (opal). It is highly porous, has a high adsorption capacity, conducts heat and sound poorly, is not easily fused, and is acid resistant. Diatomite is formed from diatomaceous silt that has accumulated in seas and lakes. In a stratigraphic cross section it may be found beginning with the Cretaceous system and is common in Cenozoic beds. Owing to the high solubility of the diatom skeletons it changes easily into tripoli and opoka.

There are deposits of diatomite in the Far East, on the Eastern slope of the Urals, and in the central Volga Region. Diatomite is used as an adsorbent and filter in the textile, petrochemical, and food industries and in the production of antibiotics, paper, various plastics, and dyes. It is also used as a raw material in the making of water glass and glaze, as a heat-and sound-insulating material in construction, as an admixture in certain types of cement, as a polishing agent (in paste form) for metals and marble, and as a pesticide.

REFERENCES

Shvetsov, M. S. Petrografiia osadochnykh porod, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1958.
Prirodnye sorbenty. Moscow, 1967.

G. A. KALEDA

diatomite, diatomaceous earth, kieselguhr

A white or light gray, chalky, natural siliceous material; obtained by mining deposits of fossil remains of small marine life; used as an extender in paints, as an aggregate in lightweight concrete, as a waterproofing material in portland cement, as a filter for water, and as an abrasive.
References in periodicals archive ?
The aluminum oxide present in the clayey fraction can clog the voids of the particles of the diatomite decreasing filtration capacities.
Chen, "Effects of diatomite on the properties of asphalt binder," Construction and Building Materials, vol.
Li, "Performance of novel thermal energy storage engineered cementitious composites incorporating a paraffin/ diatomite composite phase change material," Applied Energy, vol.
Carriers Amount of adsorbed avermectin mg/g MAC-SDS 275.4 MAC-TBAB 204.4 MAC 156.7 Talc 36.6 Bentonite 35.4 Kaolin 30.7 Diatomite 4.7
Silin, "Oil deposits in diatomites: a new challenge for subterranean mechanics," in Proceedings of the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, pp.
While Peru is primarily focused on polymetal mining, over 34 nonmetal minerals exist, among them silicates, phosphates, limestone, clay, gypsum, quartz, mica, diatomite, kaolin, pyrophyllites, talc, bentonite, calcite, travertine, marble, and pozzolans.
For this reason, more and more manufacturers are relying on Johns-Manville Celite diatomite filter aids to polish their products to a brilliant clarity.
In present study, effects of a natural pozzolan, diatomite admixture on concrete workability characteristics, setting duration and behavior under axial loading were investigated and possible use of diatomite-blended concrete as a light-weight construction material in agricultural structures was evaluated.
In this context, we utilized various biopolymers such as tamarind, xanthan, and guar gums together with diatomite to coat urea fertilizer granules.
Urea fertilizer coated with biodegradable polymers and diatomite for slow release and water retention--Jean Felix Mukerabigwi, Qing Wang, Xiaoya Ma, Min Liu, Shaojun Lei, Haitao Wei, Xueying, and Yu Cao
(3) DE, diatomite or kieselgur/kieselguhr, is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock with a typical particle size 10-200 pm.