Diatremes


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Diatremes

 

(volcanic pipes), volcanic vents in the shape of vertical pipes widening toward the top to form a funnel. Diatremes result from major gas eruptions. They are common in the vicinity of Kimberley (South Africa), where they have been filled with a volcanic breccia-like rock (kimberlite) containing diamonds. In the last decade diamond-bearing kimberlite volcanic pipes have been discovered in the Yakut ASSR.

References in periodicals archive ?
It remains to consider the nature of these two environments, and to summarize current thinking which seeks to correlate the distribution of diamondiferous diatremes with plate-tectonic processes.
Since the discovery of the first African kimberlites, the worldwide hunt for more such structures has revealed a definite pattern of distribution: kimberlite and lamproite diatremes are almost always found within the innermost, stable parts of continental shields--the original and most ancient, cratonic nuclei of continents.
Despite intensive exploration, no kimberlite or lamproite diatremes have been found in the area, and the nearest cratonic block (west of Broken Hill) is about 1,000 km away.
The Russian and Canadian cratons are vast, and huge swarms of diatremes may well lurk under the glacial cover in under-explored or unexplored regions (the very rich diatreme now being exploited by the Ekati mine remained successfully camouflaged for a long time under the glacial meltwater of Lac de Gras).
Perhaps by the end of this century some technology will have evolved for getting at diatremes there.
The "Crater of Diamonds" at Murfreesboro, Arkansas remains a popular site for tourist diggers in loose "dry ground"; diamonds were first found there in 1906, above what was first called a kimberlite, but is now known to be a lamproite diatreme (Kidwell, 1990).
This brief outline of a diatreme formation clearly shows which path the eventual geophysical prospection should take.
However, they are very narrow which does not fit the interpretation of Salansky (2009), who proposed a wide diatreme (approximately 600 metres in diameter).
They are very narrow which does not fit the interpretation of Salansky (2009), who proposed wide diatreme (approximately 600 metres in diameter).
The largest, funnel-shaped body is situated in the lowest part of the diatreme. Another one is a vertical tabular body penetrating diatreme and country rocks.
The coherent mafic intrusions more than balance the mass deficit caused by the diatreme breccia.
Several mafic intrusions were modelled within the diatreme. They were most likely emplaced in more than one eruption the topmost one being possibly a lava flow from the nearby Podhorni vrch volcanic system.