Dictatorship


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Dictatorship

 

a concept that characterizes a system of exercising power in a state. The term has two fundamental meanings: (1) the essence of state power, which ensures the political power of the economically dominant class, (2) the method of exercising power (dictatorial regime, dictatorial methods, and so forth).

Both meanings of the term “dictatorship” are closely interrelated. The dictatorship of a single class (the first meaning of the term) is necessary for every class society (V. I. Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, p. 35) and cannot be linked to any one form of state. In both monarchies and republics the dictatorship of one class is the essence of the organization of power. In other words, political dominance relies on the force of the class that occupies the key economic positions in a society, and the expression of the will of the economically dominant class through a monarch, parliament, president, or govenment depends on specific historical conditions. Regarding bourgeois society Lenin wrote: “Bourgeois states are most varied in form, but their essence is the same: all these states, whatever their forms, in the final analysis are inevitably the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie” (ibid.). (See also and STATE.)

Under a dictatorial regime (the second meaning of “dictatorship”), power is concentrated in the hands of a dictator or several persons, and violence and terror are in the foreground of politics. In such cases a dictatorship is characterized by unlimited, uncontrolled dictatorial power, attacks on the democratic rights and liberties proclaimed in the constitution, and limitations on the rights of representative bodies. The regime relies directly on force. As a rule, major social groups (classes; estates) act as the bearers of the dictatorship. However, outwardly the dictatorship is embodied in one person or in a group of persons (the dictatorships of military leaders and triumvirs in ancient Rome, absolute monarchies, present-day authoritarian regimes, and juntas). Historically, the establishment of dictatorial regimes has usually been connected with periods of sharp intensification of the class struggle (for example, the rise of Franco’s dictatorship in Spain and the fascist dictatorship in Nazi Germany).

As a means of exercising power dictatorship is alternative to a democratic regime. In arguing against the Marxist-Leninist doctrine of the dictatorship of the proletariat, the reformist and revisionist ideologists of the bourgeoisie have distorted the scientific meaning of the concept of dictatorship. Striving to play down the class nature of the present-day bourgeois state, which is a dictatorship of the monopolistic bourgeoisie, they apply the term “dictatorship” only to regimes of personal power; that is, they ignore the meaning of dictatorship as the organization of state power.

G. V. MAL’TSEV

References in periodicals archive ?
If the Paraguayan State, by law, establishes that the right to claim compensation from victims of human rights violations during the dictatorship is imprescriptible, it cannot claim as a defendant, invoke incoherent legal elements to refuse compliance with the obligation assumed compensation, says part of the explanatory statement alleging the fundamental principle of coherence that underlies the theory of own acts .
It should be noted that this is often the case for military dictatorship. While the data above do not answer this question, previous academic research suggests that of all dictator regime types, leaders of military regimes are the most likely to step down from power.
Elsewhere in the West, particularly in parts of Europe, countries that have had long-standing dictatorships are today finding ways to erase the memory of tyrants.
They said as a result of that movement spearheaded by workers, peasants, students and other people belonging to the oppressed class, the country got rid of the first military dictatorship and the notorious One-Unit.
Forms of Dictatorship is an impressive addition to the fields of comparative American literary studies and US Latinx studies.
21 ndash the anniversary of the martial law proclamation ndash as UP's day of remembrance of the dark days of the dictatorship.
All dictatorships begin the same way: media outlets are put in the hands of 'unscrupulous' people who spread lies and weaken democracy, Pope Francis said.
When reasonable Kenyans think their President's association with dictatorship is a tragedy and an insult, the tribalists and sycophants bow to dictatorship as a saviour.KING REHOBOAMThis debate is similar to the story of King Rehoboam in the Bible.
Summary: Insinuations of "creeping dictatorship" denied by palace
MalacaA~ang has brushed aside concerns raised by Catholic bishops about the alleged "creeping" dictatorship seen in the moves to amend the Constitution through a constituent assembly.
BUENOS AIRES, Rabi'I 12, 1439, November 30, 2017, SPA -- Argentina sentenced 29 people, some with nicknames like "Blond Angel of Death" and "The Tiger," to life sentences on Wednesday in a trial involving some 800 cases of kidnapping, torture and murder during the 1976-1983 dictatorship, according to Reuters.
03 (ANI): The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) on Thursday hit out at Congress vice-president Rahul Gandhi for his dictatorship remark and said its the Nehru-Gandhi family which follows the dictator policy, not them.