Dictatorship

(redirected from Dictature)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Wikipedia.

Dictatorship

 

a concept that characterizes a system of exercising power in a state. The term has two fundamental meanings: (1) the essence of state power, which ensures the political power of the economically dominant class, (2) the method of exercising power (dictatorial regime, dictatorial methods, and so forth).

Both meanings of the term “dictatorship” are closely interrelated. The dictatorship of a single class (the first meaning of the term) is necessary for every class society (V. I. Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, p. 35) and cannot be linked to any one form of state. In both monarchies and republics the dictatorship of one class is the essence of the organization of power. In other words, political dominance relies on the force of the class that occupies the key economic positions in a society, and the expression of the will of the economically dominant class through a monarch, parliament, president, or govenment depends on specific historical conditions. Regarding bourgeois society Lenin wrote: “Bourgeois states are most varied in form, but their essence is the same: all these states, whatever their forms, in the final analysis are inevitably the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie” (ibid.). (See also and STATE.)

Under a dictatorial regime (the second meaning of “dictatorship”), power is concentrated in the hands of a dictator or several persons, and violence and terror are in the foreground of politics. In such cases a dictatorship is characterized by unlimited, uncontrolled dictatorial power, attacks on the democratic rights and liberties proclaimed in the constitution, and limitations on the rights of representative bodies. The regime relies directly on force. As a rule, major social groups (classes; estates) act as the bearers of the dictatorship. However, outwardly the dictatorship is embodied in one person or in a group of persons (the dictatorships of military leaders and triumvirs in ancient Rome, absolute monarchies, present-day authoritarian regimes, and juntas). Historically, the establishment of dictatorial regimes has usually been connected with periods of sharp intensification of the class struggle (for example, the rise of Franco’s dictatorship in Spain and the fascist dictatorship in Nazi Germany).

As a means of exercising power dictatorship is alternative to a democratic regime. In arguing against the Marxist-Leninist doctrine of the dictatorship of the proletariat, the reformist and revisionist ideologists of the bourgeoisie have distorted the scientific meaning of the concept of dictatorship. Striving to play down the class nature of the present-day bourgeois state, which is a dictatorship of the monopolistic bourgeoisie, they apply the term “dictatorship” only to regimes of personal power; that is, they ignore the meaning of dictatorship as the organization of state power.

G. V. MAL’TSEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Le depute Mohamed Fadhel Ben Omrane (Nidaa) a menace de recourir avec certains deputes a la justice si un millime de la somme allouee a ce fonds est depense en vertu de l'article 3 du decret nA211 de l'annee 2018, relative a la fixation des modalites d'organisation, de fonctionnement et de financement du fonds de dignite et de rehabilitation des victimes de la dictature, a sa gestion et a son financement.
Le doute, 1ere etape vers la dictature Aujourd'hui, avec la concurrence presidentielle, on connaEt une reedition de ce systeme, en voyant les attaques farouches qu'adressent certaines forces contre tous ceux qui divergent avec elles.
" Nous ne pouvons pas laisser un regime meurtrier continuer ses activites destabilisatrices (...) et nous ne pouvons pas respecter un accord s'il sert a couvrir l'eventuelle mise en place d'un programme nucleaire ", a ajoute Trump, traitant l'Iran de " dictature corrompue ".
Reproduire l'Ancien regime avec sa tyrannie et sa dictature? Ou bien risquer de creer une nouvelle dictature, celle de la Confrerie?
Les taxistes denoncent "l'indifference et la dictature des autorites [beaucoup plus grand que] a l'egard de leurs demandes.
[beaucoup moins que]Nous avons aujourd'hui le choix entre sombrer dans une dictature corrompue et le retour a la maison, en Europe.
Apres la Revolution et cette transition difficile, on veut un president capable de repondre aux espoirs de tout un peuple qui a souffert d'une dictature qui a dure plus de 40 ans.
Les chauffeurs de taxis revendiquent leurs droits et denoncent "l'indifference et la dictature des autorites [beaucoup plus grand que] a leur egard.
L'Algerie post-independance (1962-fin des annees 1970) etait une terre d'asile de centaines de revolutionnaires portugais qui, pour la plupart, fuyaient la dictature de Salazar, a revele, jeudi dernier, a Paris, Naim Zaidi, maEtre assistant a l'Universite d'Alger.
C'est a Benghazi, deuxieme ville de Libye, qu'a debute le 17 fevrier 2011 la revolte contre le regime de Kadhafi, un soulevement qui a mis fin a plus de 40 ans de dictature dans le pays.
La Poste Tunisienne emet aujourd'hui mercredi 5 Avril 2017 un timbre-poste a l'occasion du premier anniversaire du deces du poete Mohamed Sghaier Ouled Ahmed, pour rendre hommage a un patriote qui a milite contre l'oppression et la dictature, et pour la liberte et la dignite.
[beaucoup moins que]Il est impossible de livrer la Tunisie, de nouveau, a la dictature (...) au retour de la repression, de la corruption[beaucoup plus grand que], declarent les leaders de ces nebuleuses qui se sont autoproclamees garantes de la mise en oeuvre des revendications de la revolution de janvier 2011.