Diethyl Ether


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diethyl ether

[dī′eth·əl′ē·thər]
(organic chemistry)
C4H10O A colorless liquid, slightly soluble in water; used as a reagent and solvent. Also known as ethyl ether; ethyl oxide; ethylic ether.

Diethyl Ether

 

(also ether), (C2H5)2O, the most important ether.

Diethyl ether takes the form of a colorless, mobile liquid with a characteristic odor. It has a melting point of – 116.2°C, a boiling point of 34.6°C, and a density of 0.713 g/cm3 at 20°C. Miscible in all proportions with alcohol and many other organic solvents, it is only 6.6-percent soluble in water at 20°C. It readily dissolves fats. Diethyl ether forms an azeotropic mixture with water; the mixture is 98.74-percent diethyl ether, and it has a boiling point of 34.25°C. Diethyl ether is highly flammable, and it forms explosive mixtures with air in concentrations of 1.71–48.0 percent by volume. Upon storage, it is slowly oxidized by atmospheric oxygen to form explosive peroxide compounds.

Diethyl ether is produced from ethyl alcohol at a temperature of 130°–140°C by the action of sulfuric acid—hence, its trivial name in Russian, sernyi efir (sulfuric ether). It may also be produced at 200°–250°C by the vapor-phase dehydration of ethyl alcohol over aluminum oxide (Al2O3) or potassium alums. Diethyl ether is used in industry as a solvent and extracting agent—for example, in the production of powders, motion-picture film, and photographic film. It also has various laboratory uses (seeGRIGNARD REACTION).

In medicine, two grades of diethyl ether are used—medicinal and highly purified. The former is usually applied externally or used for the preparation of tinctures and extracts; it is occasionally taken internally for vomiting. The latter is inhaled as an anesthetic before surgery or sometimes taken as an enema in the form of an oil to reduce pain during childbirth.

The maximum permissible concentration of diethyl ether vapor in the air is 0.3 mg per liter.

References in periodicals archive ?
1, the R value (B) of the total CS absorbed to stearic acid was appreciably higher than that (C) after the floccules were washed with anhydrous diethyl ether and the ratio (A) of n([COO.sup.-])/n([NH.sub.3.sup.+]).
Therefore, five treatments (concentrations, w/v) for each fraction were tested: 0.0062, 0.0200, 0.0620, 0.2000 and 0.6200% (methanol) and 0.0014, 0.004, 0.014, 0.044 and 0.1400% (diethyl ether).
250 mg of the oils shown in Table 2, were taken in 1ml hexane respectively and passed on silica gel column (60-120 mesh) and eluted with Petroleum ether, diethyl ether and acetic acid (70:30:1) mixture.
Selection of Spectral Region for Calibration Figure 3a shows an example of the infrared spectra obtained for the calibration solutions set for the system acetone-diethyl ether-water in the concentration range: 1% acetone, 6.2% diethyl ether, 92.8% water to 30% acetone, 10.9% diethyl ether, 59.1% water.
In 1846, William Morton first publicly demonstrated the use of diethyl ether. At the end of the 19th century, August Bier discovered 'local anaesthetics'.
Among the general anaesthetics studied, again chloroform and deuterated chloroform produced the most pronounced and potent effect in strength and duration followed by isoflorance and diethyl ether as illustrated in Figure 2.
Experimental gas-phase complexation enthalpies were found in the literature for dimethyl ether [14], diethyl ether [14], ethyl acetate [15], trimethylamine [16], trimethylphosphine [17], tetrahydropyran [18], tetrahydrofuran [18], and tetrahydrotiophene [19].
We purchased testosterone, epitestosterone, 5[alpha]-dihydrotestosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, estrone, androsterone,19-hydroxytestosterone, ethisterone, cyproterone acetate, ammonium acetate (SigmaUltra), and zinc sulfate heptahydrate from Sigma-Aldrich; HPLC gradient-grade methanol and water from Fisher Scientific; ACS reagent-grade ethanol from Hayman Ltd.; formic acid (Aristar) from BDH Laboratory Supplies; diethyl ether from Vickers Laboratories Ltd.; dideuterated testosterone {[1,2-[sup.2]H]testosterone ([D.sub.2]T); chemical purity by HPLC >99%; mass purity, 99.7%; product code D-29621 from [Qm.sub.x] Laboratories Ltd.; and double charcoal-stripped serum from SCIPAC Ltd.
The reaction was stopped by placing the plates on ice for 5 min, and supernatants were extracted by adding 10 volumes of diethyl ether. The extraction efficiency, evaluated by adding radiolabeled [E.sub.1], was 60 [+ or -] 3%.
Benzene, diethyl ether, ethanol, n-hexane, dimethyl ketone and water were used as solvents at liquefaction of kerogen-70.
If diethyl ether is used the solution will turn a faint yellow colour.
Lichen powders were successively and exhaustively extracted by a hot Soxhlet process with n-hexane, diethyl ether and methanol (MeOH) with 200 ml of each solvent for 15 g of dried lichen powder.