Their topics are fractional difference equations
, fractional integral equations, fractional differential equations, and fractional differential inclusions.
To move to the difference equations
it is necessary to solve the resulting equations for the derivatives
The realization problem is a fundamental research topic in nonlinear control theory, which studies the possibility of transforming a set of higher-order i/o difference equations
into a classical state-space form.
Correspondingly, the case of difference equations
was discussed in .
Recently, some authors started studying meromorphic solutions of difference equations
based on Nevanlinna theory over C (cf.
The purpose of this paper is to extend some results for matrix difference equation
obtained in  to the case of q-difference equations
In this article, we extend this study to linear fractional nabla difference equations
Baleanu, "Caputo-type modification of the Hadamard fractional derivatives," Advances in Difference Equations
For difference equations
there will be studied such issues as solvability, equilibrium existence and stability.
33-35) It is now possible to define such a designed common lightness scale in terms of any of the CIE recommended color difference equations
, and quantify differences in any attribute in terms of such color difference equations
These include describing first-order linear vector stochastic difference equations
as the building block for a class of economic structures with competitive equilibrium prices and quantities; and explaining fast algorithms, like the doubling algorithm, for computing the value function and optimal decision rule of social planning problems.
They include projects, bifurcation diagrams and life history tables, applied problems, historical information, and representations of topics visually, numerically, algebraically, and verbally, and place sequences, difference equations
, and their applications in early chapters.