# digraph

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## digraph

[′dī‚graf]
(mathematics)
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Digraph

a combination of two or more letters that indicate a single sound, for example, Polish sz and cz. In Russian known as ligatura, see LIGATURE.

## digraph

In some programming languages, a digraph is two common keyboard characters used together that represent one symbol. For example, (* and *) have represented the curly braces { and }. A trigraph uses three characters such as ??- for a tilde ~. Digraphs and trigraphs are methods for ensuring symbols can be entered into source code from an abbreviated keyboard that has fewer keys than a full-size unit.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
where [G.sub.l]([i.sub.1], ..., [i.sub.k]) is the set of acyclic digraphs with (l - k)-labelled nodes whose labelled vertex set is [mathematical expression not reproducible].
Also we have added some new definitions and results on SVN digraphs in this section.
The following instances evidenced how both boys and girls wrongly interchanged digraphs with diagraphs.
Type all the single consonant letters, consonant clusters, consonant digraphs, and rimes using a 100-point bold text in a child-friendly font.
(i) A directed graph, or digraph, is a pair G = (V, E), where E is a subset of the Cartesian product V x V.
A signed digraph G = (V, E, A) is used to describe interactions among the N agents.
Let [G.sub.1], [G.sub.2], and [G.sub.3] be digraphs. Suppose that [A.sub.t]([G.sub.1] x [G.sub.3]) = [A.sub.t]([G.sub.2] x [G.sub.3]).
Let [G.sub.1] and [G.sub.2] be two digraphs. The digraph product [G.sub.1] x [G.sub.2] is the digraph whose vertices are the set of order pairs ([a.sub.1], [a.sub.2]), where [a.sub.i] is a vertex of [G.sub.i].
In this paper all digraphs are finite and may have loops and multiple edges (edges with the same initial and final vertices).
Delete the nodes of [C.sup.1] and all precedent branches related to these nodes in the two digraphs. The remaining strong graph and weak graph are, respectively, denoted as [G.sup.2.sub.s] and [G.sup.2.sub.w].
A relevant but more general setting was studied in  which assumed the communication topology switches within a finite set of undirected graphs or digraphs. The recent works in [27-29] also discussed the consensus problem of general high-order nonlinear MASs in the leader-following or leadless framework.

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