These case studies are focused on read-across of (un-)branched carboxylic acids for the prediction of microvesicular liver steatosis (CS-1); on the effects of valproic acid analogues regarding their developmental and reproductive toxicity (CS-2); on mitochondrial toxicity effects regarding repeated dose toxicity and developmental and reproductive toxicity (CS-4); and CS-8 is focused on read-across of diketones
as the trigger for the 'Popcorn Lung'.
The other compounds detected in beer are vicinal diketones
, also produced as byproducts of the synthesis pathway of some amino acids during fermentation and diacetyl, that is, more flavour-active than the other, mainly responsible for the buttery flavour in beer .
Acylpyrazolone derivatives, mostly known for their use as analytical reagents in the extraction and separation of various metal ions, made possible because of their chelating properties, are a group of bidentate diketones
that have been well researched [7-10].
Among the best methods for pyrazole synthesis is the condensation of 1,3- diketones
with hydrazines in the presence of acids, such as hydrochloric acid , sulfuric acid  and polystyrene supported sulfuric acid .
One of the most important diketones
is diacetyle (butan-2, 3-dione) with sweet buttery and vanilla aroma.
Because diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, both diketones
, are chemically very similar, Morgan suspected that inhaled 2,3-pentanedione may be toxic to the respiratory tract as well.
Effects of plant antioxidants and natural vicinal diketones
on methane production, studied in vitro with rumen fluid and a polylactate as maintenance substrate.
Activation of light-curing systems occurs after production of free radicals in the activation of a photoinitiator (diketones
such as camphoroquinone) followed by reduction of a photoinitiator activated by an alymphatic amine, allowing liberation of free radicals.
Among the diketones
available, the most frequently used is camphorquinone (CQ).
A mixture of 3, 4 dimethoxy aldehyde (0.01 M), substituted diketones
(0.01 M) and urea (0.015 M) in methanol was refluxed for 12 hours in presence of few drops of con.
In the light of the information referred to above we made an attempt to obtain diketones
2 and 3 directly from lactone 1 by hydroboration (Scheme 2).
Grossman, technical director, Synthetic Products Co., reports that key company experiments have revealed the bridging effects of ligands, such as 1, 3 diketones
, that hold together different interacting metals, such as barium and zinc.