# dilemma

(redirected from Dilemmas)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Idioms.

## dilemma

Logic a form of argument one of whose premises is the conjunction of two conditional statements and the other of which affirms the disjunction of their antecedents, and whose conclusion is the disjunction of their consequents. Its form is if p then q and if r then s; either p or r so either q or s

## Dilemma

a particular form of inference with hypothetical (conditional) and alternative (disjunctive) premises. Two types are distinguished: the constructive (the affirmative form, the modus ponens dilemma) and the destructive (the negative form, the modus tollens dilemma), each of which, in turn, can be simple or complex. Complex constructive dilemmas are of the form “if A, then B; if C, then D; A or C; therefore, B or D” (where A,B,C,D are arbitrary judgments); simple constructive dilemmas are of the form “If A, then B; if C, then B; A or C; therefore, B” (the consequences of the conditional premises coincide). Complex destructive dilemmas are of the form “If A, then B; if C, then D; not-B or not-D; therefore, not-A or not-C”; simple destructive dilemmas are of the form “If A, then B; if A, then C; not-B or not-C; therefore, not-A” (where A, B, C, D are any judgments and the particle “not” negates the judgment before which it stands). The logical form of the dilemma finds an application in debates and discussions; in particular, logical refutations are often constructed according to the form of the simple constructive dilemma. Like any inference in logic, a dilemma guarantees a true consequence only if the premises are true.

In the figurative sense, a dilemma is a difficult situation in which a person finds himself when he must make a choice between two equally unpleasant possibilities.

### REFERENCES

Church, A. Vvedenie v matematicheskuiu logiku, vol. 1. Moscow, 1960. Pages 98, 394. (Translated from English.)
Getmanova, A. D. Vyrazhenie deduktivnykh umozakliuchenii traditsionnoi logiki v simvolicheskoi logike. Murmansk, 1962.

B. V. BIRIUKOV

## Dilemma

Buridan’s ass
placed exactly between two equal haystacks, could not decide which to turn to in his hunger. [Fr. Philos.: Brewer Dictionary, 154]
References in periodicals archive ?
The supervisors often shared the multiple levels of dilemmas they were experiencing through the telling of stories, which became one of the key texts in the PLC.
Qualitative research methods could also be used to determine if different discussion strategies affect participant thought processes on how ethical dilemmas are initially analyzed.
The purpose of this study was to examine SACs' level of moral reasoning as related to ethical dilemmas. Guiding this research was Rest and Narvaez's (1994) Four-Component Model, which extended Kohlberg's (1984) work on moral development.
The five dilemmas version used in the pilot showed good performance with regard to internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: .767).
We will explain the six dilemmas by using an example.
So when does a conflict become a dilemma? Let us focus on one particular moral conflict often examined in contemporary work on moral dilemmas, that of Sartre's student.
Exemplary Practices as an Approach to Addressing Schneider's Dilemmas
Practical norms and hierarchical structures may adversely affect new-graduates' enthusiasm for ethical behavior.7 Studies conducted on nurses' ethical sensitivity and ethical decision making levels have shown that they are not at the desired levels in ethical decision making.8,9 Likewise, studies carried out with student nurses have presented similar results.3,10,11 It has been found by studies on the ethical dilemmas experienced by nursing students and ethical decision making that the most frequent ethical dilemmas are telling the truth to incurable patients and their relatives,4 euthanasia, privacy,10,11 tapering of therapy,4,11 resuscitation of patients and patient rights.11
Synopsis: "Biosecurity Dilemmas: Dreaded Diseases, Ethical Responses, and the Health of Nations" by Christian Enemark (Professor of International Relations at the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom) examines conflicting values and interests in the practice of "biosecurity", the safeguarding of populations against infectious diseases through security policies.
"He was part of the syndicate which owned Moaning Lad when he won the Derby for Theo Mentzis and, with his son Andy and the family, owned Dilemmas Flight when she won the Oaks for Nick Savva and both Kens Dilemma and Dilemmas Lad when they won their St Legers.
Global energy dilemmas; energy security, globalization, and climate change.

Site: Follow: Share:
Open / Close