Ayacucho

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Ayacucho

(äyäko͞o`chō), city (1993 pop. 105,918), capital of Ayacucho dept., S central Peru. It is a commercial center in a rich mining region that produces gold, silver, and nickel. Agriculture and light industry are the mainstays of the economy. On the plains of Ayacucho, near the city, Antonio José de SucreSucre, Antonio José de
, 1795–1830, South American revolutionist, b. Cumaná, Venezuela. He joined (1811) the forces fighting for independence from Spain and rose to be the chief lieutenant of Simón Bolívar.
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 crushingly defeated (Dec. 9, 1824) Spanish forces under Viceroy José de la SernaSerna, José de la
, 1770–1832, Spanish general, viceroy of Peru (1821–24). In 1821 the military leaders, dissatisfied with Viceroy Pezuela and his conduct of the war against José de San Martín, deposed Pezuela and named José de la Serna in
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. The battle not only secured Peruvian independence from Spain but also marked the triumph of the revolutionary forces in all Spanish South America. Known as Huamanga since the 16th cent., the city was renamed after the battle. It has a university and many fine examples of Spanish colonial architecture. In the 1980s and early 1990s it was the center of the terrorist group the Shining PathShining Path,
Span. Sendero Luminoso, Peruvian Communist guerrilla force, officially the Communist party of Peru. Founded in 1970 by Abimael Guzmán Reynoso as an orthodox Marxist-Leninist offshoot of the Peruvian Communist party, the Shining Path turned to
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.
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Ayacucho

a city in SE Peru: nearby is the site of the battle (1824) that won independence for Peru. Pop.: 150 000 (2005 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005