In this situation

Diophantus concluded that x must be such that x is not less than 11 and not greater than 12.

which Pierre de Fermat famously quoted in margin of his copy of the Arithmetica by

Diophantus of Alexandria in 1637.

Great arithmeticians and number theorists include

Diophantus of Mexandria, Pierre de Fermat, and Kurt Godel.

Such equations are called Diophantine equations in the honour of

Diophantus who studied them many centuries ago.

Diophantus of Alexandria: A Study in the History of Greek Algebra.

They developed some symbolism which, though not extensive, was enough to classify Hindu algebra as almost symbolic and certainly more so than the syncopated algebra of

Diophantus.

Fermat's contribution became knownthrough a translation of

Diophantus Arithmetica by Claude Gaspard de Bachet (1591-1639) in 1621.

Derbyshire, a mathematician and linguist by education and systems analyst by profession, starts with the algebra of about 4,000 years ago and works up to

Diophantus, whose place as the father of algebra may be disputed but whose contributions nevertheless are universally admired, then through Hypatia, Cardano, Descartes, Newton, von Leibniz, Lagrange, Cauchy, Abel, Galois, Riemann, Lie, Poincare, Hilbert, NoetherLefschetz, Zariski, MacLane and Grothendieck, along with a host of other luminaries, giving readers accessible descriptions of their discoveries and even providing non-specialists with extra help on basics such as vector spaces, field theory and algebraic geometry.

Algebra has its roots in ancient Babylonia and Egypt and in the work of

Diophantus, a Greek who became known as the father of algebra.

In 1637, while reading a passage from the works of the famous Greek mathematician

Diophantus on expressing the square of an integer as the sum of two other integers squared, Fermat wrote on the margin of the book:

is the developer of geometry and

Diophantus, who also just happens to be from Greece, is the developer of algebra.

FERMAT WROTE HIS LAST Theorem, the Holy Grail of higher mathematics, in the margin of his copy of a text by a Greek mathematician of the third century AD,

Diophantus, next to a discussion about splitting a squared number into two squares.