Dipeptides


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Dipeptides

 

organic substances consisting of two amino acids connected by a peptide bond (—CO—NH—). Optically active, they form crystals of characteristic shape. The isoelectric point, color reactions, and other properties of dipeptides are determined by the amino acids that enter into their composition. Dipeptides are compounds intermediate between polypeptides and amino acids and are formed by the hydrolysis of proteins. Dipeptides consisting of the same L-amino acids but in different order yield isomers, for example, leucyl-alanine and alanyl-leucine. Natural dipeptides, such as carnosine and anserine, are found in animal tissues. A dipeptide molecule can be hydrolyzed by acids, alkalies, or enzymes (dipeptidases) to yield two amino acids.

References in periodicals archive ?
The following substances have been used in the experiment: Lithium ascorbate (synthesized in laboratory), carnosine - the dipeptide (3-alanyl-L-histidine (Yonezawa Hamari Chemicals, Japan), as reference drug and ascorbic acid (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany)as a standard and widely used antioxidant (Figure 1).
People with ALS and FTD have hundreds or even thousands of these repeats that generate dipeptide repeat proteins.
The oldest findings already show that supplementation of [beta]-alanine causes the increase of muscle carnosine dipeptide stocks ([beta]-alanyl-L-histidine) by 50%, which is an intramuscular pH buffering that has proven quite effective in exercise.
Carini, "Carnosine and related dipeptides as quenchers of reactive carbonyl species: from structural studies to therapeutic perspectives," BioFactors, vol.
Recently, Cruzat et al (2010) concluded that supplementation with free L-glutamine and the dipeptide alanylglutamine represents an effective source of glutamine, which may attenuate inflammation biomarkers after periods of training and plasma levels of CK and the inflammatory response induced by prolonged exercise in rats [29].
When zapped with high-energy electrons to simulate the cosmic rays in space, the chemicals reacted to form complex, organic compounds, specifically dipeptides, essential to life.
8193156 for the preparatory route for dipeptides incorporating selenoamino acids.
Gene ablation for PEPT1 in mice abolishes the effects of dipeptides on small intestinal fluid absorption, short-circuit current, and intracellular pH.
Made up from 80 percent protein and 30 percent glutamine dipeptides, typically bonded by L-Alanine and L-Glycine, Complex 12 is a highly functional ingredient offering a complete balance of proteinogenic and anti-inflammatory amino acids that work synergistically to deliver the optimum ratio of protein and carbohydrate, to replenish spent glycogen stores and aid muscle growth.
Scavenging of singlet molecular oxygen by imidazole compounds: high and sustained activities of carboxy terminal histidine dipeptides and exceptional activity of imidazole-4-acetic acid.