The sensible capacity of a radiant floor is 12-14 Btu/h.[ft.sup.2] (38-44 Watts/[meters.sup.2]) and this capacity can double if the floor is receiving direct solar gain
, as shown in Figure 4-C.
The aim of this paper is to determine the optimum orientation due to this type of climate to control the maximum indoor temperatures and direct solar gain
. The originality of this paper lies in determining the favorable orientation taking into account the building compactness, the location of the zone, the geometrical shape, the building size and building materials
For solar heating in winter, a good measure of solar exposure is to have at least four hours of direct solar gain
on the winter solstice.
Limited shading on window areas to reduce direct solar gain
Canopies inspired by the form and function of a leaf create an inviting-shaded realm, minimising direct solar gain
, as well as harvesting-energy and water.
"While there's no direct solar gain
in the warmer months, there is full solar gain from the south in the coldest months to heat the home naturally, and varying degrees of solar gain in the intermediate times." Abrams also built cross ventilation into the design wherever possible, improving air circulation in warm months.
According to Zeigler, technologies that have the greatest impact on occupant comfort, health, and productivity are the use of non-VOC-containing building materials, paints, sealants, and adhesives; elimination of cigarette and cigar smoke and other airborne contaminants; provision of adequate fresh/outdoor air; proper air filtration; proper humidity control; the use of natural daylighting and well-designed lighting systems including indirect lighting and task lighting; natural ventilation; individual thermal comfort/zone control; and use of energy-efficient windows, solar controls, and other measures to reduce winter-time drafts and control direct solar gain
and glare during the cooling season.
In the colder months, the house is heated by direct solar gain
, a solar-powered radiant slab heating system, and a heat-circulating fireplace.
After summing up the direct solar gain
entering the room from exterior windows, the direct-diffuse solar gain can be calculated from the DDF factor and the surface reflectance values.
For the 'shop windows', external louvres control direct solar gain
along the glazed perimeter.
Both building form and external skin respond to the sun path; self-shading where required; more solid to prevent heat gain and loss; more transparent where sun angles prevent direct solar gain
. A shading strategy was developed in response to detailed analysis of the frequency and intensity of sunlight on the facade.
Windows can also cause discomfort by affecting the mean radiant temperature, drafts, and direct solar gains
(Lyons et al.