in the USSR, normative acts regulating the working order in certain branches of the economy for those categories of workers whose working conditions are such that breaches of labor discipline could have serious consequences.
Disciplinary codes have been adopted for workers on the railroads (July 31, 1964), in the merchant marine (June 18, 1949, with amendments and additions of June 11, 1964), in river transport (Nov. 22, 1966), in the fishing fleet (June 30, 1966), on support vessels of the Soviet Navy (Mar. 17, 1966), and in civil aviation (May 4, 1975). Codes have also been adopted for those working underground under hazardous conditions (Nov. 30, 1976) and for aviation workers of the Ail-Union Voluntary Society for Cooperation With the Army, Air Force, and Navy (Jan. 10, 1977).
In most cases, the codes comprise general rules, incentives, and measures against breaches of discipline. In the branches of industry mentioned above, the disciplinary codes cover only those workers whose functions typify the particular branch. For example, the code for railroad workers covers only those who work on the tracks, in the control rooms, in the central administration of the Ministry of Railroads, and in plants for the repair of rolling stock. In many of the codes, the incentives and measures against breaches of discipline go beyond those used with workers not covered by the codes. For example, sailors in the merchant marine can be denied shore leave for up to five days, can be transferred to a vessel of a lower group, and can be assigned to shore duty for up to one year. The codes set forth in detail the rights of supervisors in disciplinary matters. Labor disputes arising from sanctions imposed on workers covered by disciplinary codes are settled by superior bodies.