According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)-text revision, the disease was subcategorized within the diagnosis of "pervasive developmental disorders (PDD)." As this definition was open to argument, the more recent DSM-V made it simpler and gathered different diagnoses (autistic disorder, Rett syndrome, Asperger's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder
, and PDD not otherwise specified) together to generate the diagnosis of ASD (3).
ASDs cover conditions such as autism, childhood disintegrative disorder
and asperger syndrome.
The exclusion criteria for this work included (1) genetic syndromes associated with autistic features such as tuberous sclerosis, (2) autism with neurodegenerative conditions such as Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder
, (3) patients with other psychiatric disorders, (4) cases with active epilepsy, (5) impaired gross motor function, and (6) the taking of benzodiazepines.
Furthermore, other forms of childhood disintegrative disorder
and overactive disorder associated with mental retardation and stereotyped movements were not included in the dataset.
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), autism subtypes, autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and childhood disintegrative disorder
(CDD), are merged to a single term "autism spectrum disorder." Rett disorder that was previously assigned as an autism subtype under DSM-IV criteria was classified as a separate disorder [2, 3].
Autism, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder
, and PDDNOS all are collectively described as autism spectrum disorders.
Table 1 Demographic Information of Respondents Participant characteristics n % of caregivers Caregiver responding Mother 144 92.31 Father 6 3.85 Legal guardian 3 1.92 Grandparent 3 1.92 Child's diagnosis Autism 91 58.33 Asperger's 41 26.28 PDD-NOS 22 14.10 Childhood disintegrative disorder
1 0.64 Rhett's disorder 1 0.64 Reported autism severity Mild 58 36.71 Moderate 74 46.84 Severe 23 16.46 Child's age 0-29 months 6 3.73 30-47 months 15 9.32 4-5 years 18 11.18 6-7 years 21 13.04 8-9 years 24 14.91 10-11 years 20 12.42 12-13 years 15 9.32 14 and over 42 26.09 Time child is in school/day care Less than 1 hour 18 11.32 2-10 hours per week 12 7.55 11-20 hours per week 16 10.06 21-30 hours per week 41 25.79 31-40 hours per week 68 42.77 More than 41 hours per week 4 2.25 Note.
Childhood disintegrative disorder
(CDD) is a rare pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) which is characterised by a marked regression in multiple areas of development after 2 years of normal development and before 10 years of age.
The disturbance is not better accounted for by Rett's disorder or childhood disintegrative disorder
Using DSM-IV, patients could be diagnosed with four separate disorders: autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder
, and the catch-all diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified.
ASD is now an umbrella term that encompasses autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, childhood disintegrative disorder
, and Rett syndrome.