running

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running

1. (of a wound, sore, etc.) discharging pus or a serous fluid
2. (of certain plants, plant stems, etc.) creeping along the ground

Running

 

a means of transportation by which, as defined by P. F. Lesgaft, the body “is either touching the ground with one foot or flying in the air,” in contrast to walking, when the body has constant support on one or two legs. Running is a valuable means of physical exercise. It is used extensively in physical exercises for children and young people, as well as in industrial and general-health gymnastics, in the training of servicemen, in exercises for physical training of the elderly, and in therapeutic physical culture. In sports, running accounts for approximately two-thirds of light athletics and is an element in almost all other kinds of sports.

Track competitions were held in ancient Egypt, Assyria, and ancient Greece. For a long time running was the only sport in the Olympic, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games. In the Middle Ages running was compulsory in the physical training programs of knights and ecclesiastics. Track meets first began in England. In Russia regular running events were first organized in 1888 by P. P. Moskvin (later Honored Master of Sport) and his Amateur Runners Society. By the end of the 19th century track was encouraged in almost all countries.

Track consists of flat races—that is, races on level surfaces, running tracks, and so on—and obstacle races—hurdles, steeplechase, obstacle courses, and crosscountry. The classic track events for men are the sprint (running a short distance; 100, 200, and 400 m), middle-distance race (running 800, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 m), longdistance race, or stayer run (running a long distance; 3,000, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, and 30,000 m), marathon race (42 km and 193 m), and one-hour run; hurdles (110, 200, and 400 m), steeplechase (3,000 m), and relay race (4 X 100, 4 X 200, 4 X 400,4 X 800, and 4 X 1,500 m). For women the events are the 60-, 100-, 200-, 400-, 800-, 1,000-, and 1,500-meter races; hurdles (100 and 200 m); and relay races (4 X 100, 4 X 200, and 4 X 800 m). In all of these events except the marathon world records are registered. Most of the contests, including the marathon, which is obligatory, are included in the program of the Olympic Games.

Among Soviet runners, the most well known are the brothers S. and G. Znamenskii, in whose name an annual prize (since 1947) is awarded to the winner of the Humanité cross-country race in France; in the USSR memorial sports competitions have been held in their honor since 1949; V. Kuts, former eight time world record holder and winner of the 5,000- and 10,000-meter races in the 1956 Olympics in Melbourne; P. Bolotnikov, champion at the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome and twice world record holder in the 10,000-meter race. Among Soviet women who won world acclaim as middle-distance runners are E. Vasilieva, who set 12 world records; N. Otkalenko, who bettered 14 world records; L. Lysenko, champion at the 1960 Olympics and holder of five world records; and I. Press, world record holder and Olympic champion in the 80-meter hurdles, who set six world records at this distance.

Foreign runners include P. Nurmi of Finland, who set 24 world records and was champion of the Olympic Games in Antwerp (1920), Paris (1924), and Amsterdam (1928). The American J. Owens set six world records in one track-and-field meet (Ann Arbor, 1935), and at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin he became the champion in the 100-meter and 200-meter dashes and 400-meter relay. E. Zatopek of Czechoslovakia, who set 18 world records, was an Olympic Games champion in London (1948) in the 10,000-meter race and in Helsinki (1952) in the 5,000-meter race, 10,000-meter race, and marathon. The Australian R. Clarke broke the long-distance and one-hour run records 11 times in 1965. One of the best female runners is F. Blankers-Koen of Holland, winner of four Olympic gold medals (London, 1948) and 14-time world record holder.

What does it mean when you dream about running?

Running away or escaping may indicate that the dreamer needs to get away from a person or situation that is overwhelming the dreamer. A slower pace of life may be indicated.

running

1. Linked in a smooth progression, inclining to the right or the left, within a band; applied to various ornamental motifs.
2. Forming a cornice in place with a running mold.

Running

(dreams)
Dreaming of running competitively should be distinguished from dreams which have you running to or from something. If you are simply running with no goal, it may be an indication that you need to slow down in your every day life. If you are competing, you need to consider your recent rivalries and realistically look at the current challenges. If you are running in a race and win, your unconscious may be expressing confidence that you may or may not feel in the wakened state. Running in your dreams may also symbolize the energy levels, the strength, or the force that you have to get through life.
References in periodicals archive ?
The effect of stride length variation on oxygen uptake during distance running.
Very few studies have undertaken the task of determining the role of long distance running in the development of urolithiasis.
For the past decade, the Corkman has been the one shaft of light in what has otherwise been a gloomy period for Irish distance running.
Stewart, an Olympic 5000 metres bronze medallist and former world cross country champion, has been charged with formulating a programme to revitalise the ailing fortunes of British distance running.
Hebburn-born Foster won 10,000 metres bronze at the 1976 Olympics and broke the world record at 3,000m at a time when the region was one of the strongest in the world at distance running.
distance running, long one of the weaker links in the world's dominant track and field program.
Nevertheless, distance running reduces BMI as well.
But these achievements are not recorded officially in the UK because distance running is not recognised by the International Sports Organisation for the Disabled.
Once British middle distance running ruled the world.
Paula Radcliffe has been named Runner of the Year for 2003 by Race Results Weekly, the leading USA wire service for distance running.
Her winning time of 28mins18secs put her over a minute clear of the Sandra Branney but it was as thoughts turned to Fairweather, a Scottish distance running inter- nationalist of potential before her untimely death earlier this year, that emotions bubbled over.
a look at the Internet's distance running message boards reveals that thousands of marathoners are now incorporating the use of personal global positioning system (GPS) devices into their training and racing.