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see biological diversitybiological diversity
or biodiversity,
the number of species in a given habitat. Scientists have variously estimated that there are from 3 to 30 million extant species, of which 2.
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The variety of all living things; a contraction of biological diversity. Biodiversity can be measured on many biological levels ranging from genetic diversity within a species to the variety of ecosystems on Earth, but the term most commonly refers to the number of different species in a defined area.

Numbers of extant species for selected taxonomic groups
Number of Estimated number Percent
Kingdom Phylum species described of species described
Protista 100,000 250,000 40.0
Fungi Eumycota 80,000 1,500,000 5.3
Plantae Bryophyta 14,000 30,000 46.7
Tracheophyta 250,000 500,000 50.0
Animalia Nematoda 20,000 1,000,000 2.0
Arthropoda 1,250,000 20,000,000 5.0
Mollusca 100,000 200,000 50.0
Chordata 40,000 50,000 80.0
*With permission, modified from G. K. Meffe and C. R. Carroll, Principles of Conservation Biology, 1997.

Recent estimates of the total number of species range from 7 to 20 million, of which only about 1.75 million species have been scientifically described. The best-studied groups include plants and vertebrates (phylum Chordata), whereas poorly described groups include fungi, nematodes, and arthropods (see table). Species that live in the ocean and in soils remain poorly known. For most groups of species, there is a gradient of increasing diversity from the Poles to the Equator, and the vast majority of species are concentrated in the tropical and subtropical regions.

Human activities, such as direct harvesting of species, introduction of alien species, habitat destruction, and various forms of habitat degradation (including environmental pollution), have caused dramatic losses of biodiversity; current extinction rates are estimated to be 100–1000 times higher than prehuman extinction rates.

Some measure of biodiversity is responsible for providing essential functions and services that directly improve human life. For example, many medicines, clothing fibers, and industrial products and the vast majority of foods are derived from naturally occurring species. In addition, species are the key working parts of natural ecosystems. They are responsible for maintenance of the gaseous composition of the atmosphere, regulation of the global climate, generation and maintenance of soils, recycling of nutrients and waste products, and biological control of pest species. Ecosystems surely would not function if all species were lost, although it is unclear just how many species are necessary for an ecosystem to function properly.


The tendency in ecosystems, when undisturbed, to have a great variety of species forming a complex web of interactions. Human population pressure and resource consumption tend to reduce biodiversity dangerously; diverse communities are less subject to catastrophic disruption.


The range of living organisms (such as plant and animal species) in an environment during a specific time period.


the existence of a wide variety of plant and animal species in their natural environments, which is the aim of conservationists concerned about the indiscriminate destruction of rainforests and other habitats
References in periodicals archive ?
The Diversity of Life gallery will be the first of 11 new galleries.
Science had in natural selection a mechanism to account for the changes in species over time and to explain the diversity of life without reference to divine intervention.
A FESTIVAL which promotes the cultural diversity of life in Coventry has sprung into life.
Darwin arrived at the startling conclusion that life on Earth is not static, but changing, and his controversial theory of natural selection offered a mechanism to explain the existence of the amazing diversity of life on Earth.
That's because older life forms are also a part of the diversity of life on Earth.
It will explore the diversity of life in the west London borough through music.
It is there because people with vision understood that bottomland hardwood forests are incubators of a rich diversity of life, whether it be feathered, furred, or scaled.
The essays in this book continue the debate setting the conception of nature as the result of a supernatural act as against the naturalist, materialist view of the diversity of life in which causation is better explained by nonsupernatural intervention, the latter described by the Darwinian model of evolution.
Another participant spoke of connecting not only with people of varied racial and ethnic backgrounds, but also with people with a rich diversity of life experiences.
A prolific and popular author, Wilson's works include Insect Societies (I 971 ), Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975), On Human Nature (1978), Biophilia (1984), The Ants (with Bert Holldobler, 1990), The Diversity of Life (1992), The Naturalist (1994), In Search of Nature (1996), Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (1998), and The Future of Life (2002).
Guidebooks and feuilletons, usually ignored, are ennobled here as keys to parsing the diversity of life in the northern Russian metropolis.

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