Diverticulum


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diverticulum

[‚dī·vər′tik·yə·ləm]
(medicine)
An abnormal outpocketing or sac on the wall of a hollow organ.

Diverticulum

 

a pouch formed by the congenital or acquired protrusion of the wall of a tubular organ in man. Most frequently encountered are diverticula of the esophagus or urinary bladder and more rarely, of the duodenum or stomach. Congenital diverticula are associated with defects in the development of the organ. Acquired diverticula arise as a result of pressure from the organ cavity on its wall, which has been weakened either by a pathological process (trauma, inflammation), or they may result from congenital muscular weakness of the wall (pouch-like protrusion). Diverticula may develop when diseases of neighboring organs result in a pulling on the organ wall by cicatrices and adhesions (funnel-shaped protrusion). After it has entered a diverticulum, the content of an organ is retained there for some time; later the diverticulum is evacuated. The diverticulum gradually stretches and becomes enlarged, and evacuation becomes difficult. The stagnant content irritates the mucous membrane of the diverticulum and becomes infected. Inflammation of the walls of the diverticulum develops—diverticulitis (catarrhal, ulcerative, or phlegmonous; perforation of the diverticulum is possible). A diverticulum of the esophagus may manifest itself by difficulty of food passage and vomiting and a diverticulum of the urinary bladder, by difficulty in urinating. An intestinal diverticulum sometimes causes obstruction. Treatment depends on the site and the course of the illness; in some cases surgery is necessary.

References in periodicals archive ?
Results of the CT scan showed mild enlargement of the nasal diverticulum and deviation of the septum with multiple soft tissue opacities and fluid accumulation within the maxillary sinus, consistent with chronic rhinosinusitis.
We presented a case of an older woman with two episodes of pancreatitis in a short period of time caused by duodenal diverticulum near the site of papilla of Vater.
Wedge resection was done in 18 cases (60%) with broad base and short diverticulum. Intestinal resection anastomosis was done in 12 cases (40%) with narrow base, lengthy diverticulum, perforation, and other associated complications [Table 4].
Meckel's diverticulum occurs as a result of the inability to obliterate the omphalomesenteric channel in the fifth week of fetal development, and it is generally diagnosed with a complication (1).
The various reasons for intussusceptions were analysed with histopathological findings showed Meckel's diverticulum in 30 cases (50%), submucosal lymphoid hyperplasia 19 (31.9%), inflamed appendix 8 (13.3%), submucosal haematoma 1 (1.6%), polyp
Other causes were as follows: perforation of Meckel's diverticulum (8 patients, 22.8%), phytobezoar (6 patients, 17.1%), non-specific inflammation (5 patients, 14.2%), intestinal tuberculosis (3 patients, 8.5%), multiple perforations (possibly due to microembolism; one patient, 2.8%), radiation enteritis (1 patient, 2.8%), and a foreign body (fishbone; one patient, 2.8%) (Table-III) (Fig.
Food retention and possible overgrowth of bacteria within the diverticulum have been suggested as possible causes for belching and halitosis (5).
The left ventricular diverticulum was dissected out to the umbilicus and delivered into the chest with gentle traction and revealed a fingerlike pouch contracting synchronously with the left ventricle (Figure 2 and Video 1).
We punctured the diverticulum and dilated it using a 24 Fr balloon catheter (X-Force N30 Nephrostomy Balloon Dilation Catheter; Bard, New Providence, NJ, USA), under ultrasound guidance and ureteroscopy, with a working sheath placed at the edge of the diverticular cavity.
If the diverticulum was not found under FURS (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) or the Blue Spritz technique, which involved instillation of methylene blue (Jumpcan, Jiangsu, China) into the collecting system,[sup][4],[5],[8],[10] a G18 puncture needle (Bard, Covington, GA, USA) was used for diverticular puncture under ultrasound guidance.
The procedure was significantly less often inconclusive in cases of absence of a diverticulum, 6.3% versus 12.8%, p < 0.001.