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an urban-type settlement and the administrative center of Dmanisi Raion, Georgian SSR. Located on the Mashavera River (Kura basin), 30 km southwest of the Kazreti railway station, the last station on the Marneuli branch line. The settlement has a dairy. Near Dmanisi, at the confluence of the Mashavera and Pinezauri rivers, are the ruins of the fortified city of Dmanisi (25 hectares in area), an important strategic point and a crafts and trading center of medieval Georgia. The city arose in the early Middle Ages. In the fortress there is a basilica enclosing three churches, built in the sixth and seventh centuries and restored in the early 18th century; the 13th-century narthex is richly adorned with carvings. The ruins of a belfry lie to the east of the basilica.

Dmanisi was conquered by the Arabs in the ninth century and later by the Seljuk Turks, who were driven out in 1123 by David IV the Builder. Dmanisi flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. The city had a mixed population of Christians and Muslims (Georgians, Armenians, Arabs). Soon after it was sacked by Tamerland in the late 14th century, the city began to decline. It was devastated by Mongol and Tatar, Persian, and Turkish invasions. By the end of the 16th century Dmanisi had become a village, and by the mid-18th century it was deserted. The city began to be studied in the mid-19th century, and excavations were begun in 1936. City gates, paved streets, baths, a tunnel to the river, houses, a potter’s shop, a vegetable oil mill, and other workshops have been unearthed, as well as shops, granaries, wine cellars, and a mosque with a minaret and medrese (college). A large assortment of local ceramics of the ninth and tenth centuries and especially the 11th and 12th centuries, coins from the llth to 13th centuries (mainly Georgian), tools, weapons, and a treasure of 25 gold and silver ornaments from the 12th to 13th centuries have been found at the site.


Muskhelishvili, L. V. “Raskopki v Dmanisi.” In the collection Sovetskaia arkheologiia, fase. 6. Moscow-Leningrad, 1940.
Lomtatidze, G. A. “Nekotorye itogi arkheologicheskikh raskopok pamiatnikov feodal’noi Gruzii.” Ibid., fase. 27. Moscow-Leningrad, 1957.
Jap’arize, V. “Shot’a Rust’avelis epok’is nak’alak’ari Dmanisi da misi ark’eologiuri shescavla.” Zeglis megobari, 8. Tbilisi, 1966.


References in periodicals archive ?
Indonesia Embassy of Indonesia University and the Embassy of lectures on the topic: "The first people from Africa: Dmanisi (Georgia) in the early period of the People".
This belief continued to thrive on, until the Dmanisi hominids were discovered.
Erectus de Java, Dmanisi y Gongwangling, habria que considerar un polimorfismo en etapas antiguas de la evolucion del genero Homo, visto que no estan proximamente emparentados (p.
En 2005 se anuncio en la revista "Nature" uno de las evidencias paleoantropologicas mas interesantes de la ultima decada, el hallazgo en Dmanisi (Georgia) de un craneo con mandibula asociada con una ausencia practicamente total de la denticion.
He says shape similarities among Dmanisi skulls that fit the lower jaws indicate that only one Homo species occupied the site.
En 2013 la revista Science publico un articulo (23) sobre la evolucion humana en el que se describe la aparicion de cinco craneos en Dmanisi (Georgia) y se concluye que la variacion intergrupal de la especie humana debia ser mucho mayor que la estimada por las estrechas clasificaciones de las subespecies Homo.
TEHRAN (FNA)- Paleoanthropologists from the University of Zurich have uncovered the intact skull of an early Homo individual in Dmanisi, Georgia.
The skull -- unearthed in the mediaeval town of Dmanisi some 100km southwest of the capital Tbilisi -- is the first completely preserved skull found from that period.
The findings at Dmanisi are more complete, weaving more of a short story.
18 ( ANI ): A new skull, found in Dmanisi, suggests that nearly half a dozen species of our early human ancestor may have been all Homo erectus.
Recent excavations of Dmanisi have revealed an extraordinary record of the earliest hominid dispersal beyond Africa (1.
Hace apenas diez anos se descubrio la existencia de un hominido que habito en Europa hace mil ochocientos millones de anos: el llamado Homo Georgicus, por haber sido descubierto en Dmanisi (Georgia) por un equipo internacional dirigido por David Lordkipanidze.