Dmitrii Karakozov

Karakozov, Dmitrii Vladimirovich

 

Born Oct. 23 (Nov. 4), 1840, in the village of Zhmakino, Serdobskii District, Saratov Province, present-day Penza Oblast; died Sept. 3 (15), 1866, in St. Petersburg. Participant in the Russian revolutionary movement, member of a secret revolutionary society in Moscow.

Karakozov, whose family belonged to the lower dvorianstvo (nobility), studied at the University of Kazan (from 1861) and Moscow University (from 1864). In early 1866 he became a member of the revolutionary Ishutin Circle, which had been founded by his first cousin N. A. Ishutin in Moscow in 1863. Karakozov arrived in St. Petersburg in the spring of 1866 with the intention of assassinating the tsar. He distributed handwritten copies of his proclamation “To Our Worker Friends,” summoning the people to revolution. On Apr. 4, 1866, Karakozov shot at Emperor Alexander II at the gates of the Summer Garden. Sentenced to death by the Supreme Criminal Court, he was hanged at Smolensk Field in St. Petersburg.

E. S. VILENSKAIA

References in periodicals archive ?
By showing how closely the state defined the narrative that was created surrounding Dmitrii Karakozov's 1866 attack on Alexander II, she demonstrates that terror, as it came to be understood in Russian society, was pardy crafted by administrators themselves.
Although there are practical reasons for her strict focus on the "emperor hunt," society's engagement with terrorism began, as Safronova at one point acknowledges, with Dmitrii Karakozov's attempt in 1866.
That support weakened as early as 1866, with Dmitrii Karakozov's assassination attempt, and it evaporated under Alexander III and Nicholas II, whose notion of personal monarchy was inimical to civil society and liberalism.
This occurred on such critical occasions as after Dmitrii Karakozov's assassination attempt on Alexander II in 1866--when, through the committee, Chief of Police Peter Shuvalov assumed a preponderant role--and in the 1890s, when Sergei Witte dominated it in order to promote measures to advance industrialization (see below).
She concentrates on the events of a single day, 4 April 1866, when Dmitrii Karakozov fired at Alexander II.
It is a highly focused investigation of Dmitrii Karakozov's attempted assassination of Alexander II in 1866, an event that marked a break in the reform era, ushering in increased state repression and the development of a revolutionary underground.