Dobruja

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Dobruja

Dobruja (dōˈbro͝ojə, dôˈ–), Rom. Dobrogea, Bulg. Dobrudza, historic region, c.9,000 sq mi (23,300 sq km), SE Europe, in SE Romania and NE Bulgaria, between the lower Danube River and the Black Sea. The chief cities are Constanţa, in Romania, and Dobrich and Silistra, in Bulgaria. Dobruja comprises a low coastal strip and a hilly and forested inland. Largely agricultural, the region grows cereal crops, has vineyards, and breeds Merino sheep. The largest industrial concentration is in and around Constanţa. Tourism is also economically important, particularly in the Romanian part of Dobruja. The population includes Romanians, Bulgarians, Turks, and Tatars. Dobruja's original inhabitants were conquered in the 6th cent. B.C. by the Greeks, who founded colonies along the Black Sea coast. The region passed to the Scythians in the 5th cent. B.C. and to the Romans (who made it part of Moesia) in the 1st cent. B.C. As part of the Roman Empire and later of the Byzantine, it suffered frequent invasions from the Goths, Huns, Avars, and other tribes. Part of the first Bulgarian empire (681–1018), it was reconquered by the Byzantines. In 1186 it was included in the second Bulgarian empire. Tatar raids were common in the 13th cent. In the 14th cent. the region became an autonomous state under Walachian prince Dobrotich, from whom the name Dobruja derives. Turks conquered the region in 1411, and for the next five centuries it remained a sparsely populated and barely cultivated territory of the Ottoman Empire. In 1878 the Congress of Berlin awarded N Dobruja to Romania and a strip of land later known as S Dobruja to Bulgaria. As a result of the second Balkan War Bulgaria ceded (1913) S Dobruja to Romania. The Treaty of Neuilly, signed in 1919 between Bulgaria and the Allies of World War I, gave all of Dobruja to Romania. In 1940, however, the German-imposed Treaty of Craiova forced Romania to transfer S Dobruja to Bulgaria.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Dobruja

 

or Dobrudja (in Rumanian Dobrogea, in Bulgarian Dobrudzha), a historic region in Europe between the lower course of the Danube River and the Black Sea coast. The northern part of the region, comprising the districts of Tulcea and Constanta, is part of the Socialist Republic of Rumania; the southern part, comprising the cities Tolbukhin and Silistra, is part of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria.

Originally settled by Thracian tribes, Dobruja was occupied by the Scythians in the fifth century B.C. and the Romans in the first century A.D.. Beginning in the third century Dobruja was invaded by Goths, Huns, and other tribes. The Slavs appeared in the region in the early sixth century. The region became part of the first Bulgarian kingdom during its establishment in the seventh century. Controlled by Byzantium in the llth and 12th centuries, Dobruja became part of the second Bulgarian kingdom in the late 12th century. With the decline of this kingdom an independent feudal state arose in Dobruja in the 14th century. Founded by the Bulgarian Balik, it was named Dobruja after his successor, Dobrotich.

In the late 1520’s Dobruja was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. After the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, South Dobruja was ceded to Bulgaria and North Dobruja to Rumania. The Treaty of Bucharest of 1913 ceded South Dobruja to Rumania; this provision remained in effect until 1940, except during the period from 1916 to 1918, when the entire region was occupied by Bulgarian and German troops. The Bulgarian-Rumanian treaty signed in Craiova on Sept. 7, 1940, returned possession of South Dobruja to Bulgaria. Peace treaties between Bulgaria and Rumania reaffirmed the Bulgarian-Rumanian border in Dobruja in 1947.

REFERENCES

Manolov, I. Z. Dobrudzha po p”tia na sotsialisma. Sofia, 1954.
Georgiev, I. Dobrudzha v borbata za svoboda. Sofia, 1962.
Pippidi, D., and D. Berciu. Din istoria Dobrogei. Bucharest, 1965.

F. I. SADCHIKOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Dobruja

a region of E Europe, between the River Danube and the Black Sea: the north passed to Romania and the south to Bulgaria after the Berlin Congress (1878)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Due to its imperial policy and the commercial ties with the Byzantine world, Dobrogea maintained its religious ties with Constantinople.
Most of them are from Romania, and the focus of their study is the Dobrogea and Danube Delta on the Romanian coast of the Black Sea.
A chronicle regarding the Seljuq dynasty, completed in 1424, records the first colonization of the South-Eastern part of the Romanian territory (Dobrogea) by a group of tens of thousands of Anatolian Turkmen Muslims between 1263-1264.
Under these circumstances, although they continued to be in favour of keeping the status quo, the Romanian authorities searched for a solution in case it changed, by making an amendment to the Dobrogea border, which hadn't been solved in its favour in 1878.
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In terms of the hierarchy of the landscape, the area of Casimcea commune is circumscribed to the landscape macrounit of Central Dobrogea Plateau.
To the south, German General August von Mackensen led German, Bulgarian, and Turkish troops through the Dobrogea and into the heart of Romania.
Located in the Dobrogea region of Romania, Constanta is the biggest port city of Black Sea, Constanta has an approximately 120,000 year history, dating from the Paleolithic era and making it the oldest settlement in the region.
Romanians and Bulgarians fear that plans of US energy giant Chevron to explore for shell gas might lead to pollution in the Dobrudzha (Dobrogea) region their share.
(7) This means that Romania has the highest wind energy potential in South East Europe, while Dobrogea ranks second among the entire continent (8).
While the EBRD would lend EUR31m for the 80 megawatt wind project that is located in the Dobrogea region, Erste Group Bank AG (EBS), ING Groep NV (INGA) and UniCredit Bank Austria AG are to lend a combined EUR60m.