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a Rumanian and Moldavian lyrical folk song that came into existence during the early feudal period. Since the 182Q’s and particularly during the 20th century, the development of the doina in Rumania and Moldavia was parallel. Doinas are vocal and instrumental; they are played on the fluier, chimpoi, nai, and violin or are sung without instrumental accompaniment. The melodies, distinguished by rhythmical freedom, are improvised. There is a great variety of harmonic parts.

A doina tells of the life and struggles of a people throughout its history. Early doinas, first sung by shepherds, consisted of two sections—the first was a lament and the second a dance melody, expressing the shepherd’s joy upon his return home with the flock. With time, whole series of pastoral doinas were written. Between the 17th and the early 19th century, the well-known hajducie song cycle, telling of the rebel warriors’ struggle and Turkish feudal oppression, was composed. There are many love songs, military recruiting songs, and revolutionary songs among the doinas. Contemporary Rumanian and Moldavian doinas express the thoughts and feelings of a people building a new life. Motifs and images of doinas have been used by the classical poets V. Alecsandri, M. Eminescu, and G. Co§buc and the composers C. Porumbescu, G. Musicescu, G. Enescu, S. Dragoi, S. Niaga, and E. Koka. The best-known groups that perform doinas are the Moldavian Doina Chorus and the Barbu Lautaru Rumanian State Folk Orchestra.


Folklor moldoveneske. Kishinev, 1956.
Poesie populare moldoveniaske. Kishinev, 1960.
Flori alese din poezia popular a. Bucharest, 1960.
In Russian translation:
Moldavskiifol’klor: Pesni i ballady. Moscow, 1953.
Rumynskie narodnye pesni i skazki. Moscow, 1963.


Aks’onova, L. A. Kyntekul popular moldovenesk. Kishinev, 1958.
Tocilescu, G. G. Balade si doine. Bucharest, 1958.
Folclor din Transilvania, vols. 1-2. Bucharest, 1962.
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