dollar

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dollar

1. the standard monetary unit of the US and its dependencies, divided into 100 cents
2. the standard monetary unit, comprising 100 cents, of the following countries or territories: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Canada, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Kiribati, Liberia, Malaysia, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Namibia, Nauru, New Zealand, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, and Zimbabwe
3. Brit informal (formerly) five shillings or a coin of this value

Dollar

 

the monetary unit of the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Liberia, Ethiopia, Malaysia, Barbadoes, Guyana, Singapore, Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, Western Samoa, Hong Kong, and Fiji, as well as of the Bahama Islands, Brunei, and British Honduras. The dollar is divided into 100 cents.

The USA adopted the (silver) dollar in 1786, and the law of 1792 introduced bimetalism in the USA, providing for free coinage of gold and silver dollars. The gold dollar became the monetary unit in 1873, and the gold standard was officially adopted in the USA in 1900, providing for a dollar with 1.50463 grams of pure gold. After World War I (1914-18) the dollar gained dominance among the capitalist currencies, but the world economic crisis of 1929-33 greatly undermined the dollar and forced the USA to give up the gold standard in 1933. In 1934 the dollar was devalued by 40.94 percent and on Jan. 31, 1934, its gold content was fixed at 0.888671 grams of pure gold. Gold dollar coins were withdrawn from circulation and replaced with banknotes. The inflation after World War II (1939-45) reduced the purchasing power of the dollar to less than half of its prewar value.

The US dollar is the main currency of the dollar zone. The following dollar notes and coins are now in circulation: $100, $50, $20, $5, and $2 federal reserve notes (the issue of notes of $500 or more has been discontinued and they are virtually no longer in circulation); $10, $5, $2, and $1 silver certificates (they are gradually being bought up); $5 and $2 treasury notes, called greenbacks; and $1 and half-dollar silver coins and 25, 10, 5, 2, and 1 cent copper and nickel coins. According to the exchange rate set by the Gosbank (State Bank) of the USSR, US $100 were equal to 82.90 rubles on Dec. 24, 1971. The chronic deficit in the balance of payments the USA has been experiencing since the 1950’s is reducing gold reserves; this deficit and inflation have greatly lowered the purchasing power of the dollar, and its international position has become weaker. The acute currency crisis in the spring and summer of 1971 undermined the dollar as the key capitalist currency. In December 1971 the dollar was devalued by 7.89 percent and its gold content was lowered, while the official price of gold rose from $35 to $38 for a Troy ounce (31.1035 g).

M. G. POLIAKOV

dollar

[′däl·ər]
(nucleonics)
A unit of reactivity, equal to the difference between the reactivities for delayed critical and prompt critical conditions in a given nuclear reactor.

dollar

(character)
"$" Common names: ITU-T: dollar sign. Rare: currency symbol; buck; cash; string; escape (when used as the echo of ASCII ESC); ding; cache; INTERCAL: big money.

Well-known uses of the dollar symbol in computing include as a prefix on the names of string variables in BASIC, shell and related languages like Perl. In shell languages it is also used in positional parameters so "$1" is the first parameter to a shell script, "$2" the second, etc.
References in classic literature ?
At first they said nothing but 'lots--lots--up town--down town--twenty-five feet front--dollar, dollar, dollar.
What, for a gentleman who keeps his coach--lives in Broadway--dresses his daughter as I dress, and gives her hundred- dollar handkerchiefs.
How on earth do you expect me to meet a draft of two hundred and seventy-five dollars without a dollar in the treasury, and with a debt of thirty thousand dollars staring us in the face?
15 Dey Street, New York, the merchant replied that the goods were ready, and so was the bill, which was seven dollars.
Watson was offered ten thousand dollars for his one-tenth interest, and hesitated three days before refusing it.
Then, in the very midnight of this depression, poor Bell returned from England, whither he and his bride had gone on their honeymoon, and announced that he had no money; that he had failed to establish a telephone business in England; and that he must have a thousand dollars at once to pay his urgent debts.
They admired and marvelled; but not a man subscribed a dollar.
Among the big three small-box discounters, Dollar Tree Inc.
The company's net income at the end of its 2013 fiscal year in September amounted to 37 billion dollars on revenue of 171 billion dollars.
The total size for the demand on the US dollars had reached 128,960,000 dollars on Monday, covered by the CBI on an average rate of 1,170 dinars per dollar," the release stated.
As central banks balled out of gold in the 1990s, their herding out of dollars will accelerate the dollar's decline.