Domain Name System

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domain name system

[dō‚mān ′nām ‚sis·təm]
(computer science)
Abbreviated DNS.
A system used on the Internet to map the easily remembered names of host computers (domain names) to their respective Internet Protocol (IP) numbers.
A software database program that converts domain names to Internet Protocol addresses, and vice versa.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Domain Name System

(networking)
(DNS) A general-purpose distributed, replicated, data query service chiefly used on Internet for translating hostnames into Internet addresses. Also, the style of hostname used on the Internet, though such a name is properly called a fully qualified domain name. DNS can be configured to use a sequence of name servers, based on the domains in the name being looked for, until a match is found.

The name resolution client (e.g. Unix's gethostbyname() library function) can be configured to search for host information in the following order: first in the local hosts file, second in NIS and third in DNS. This sequencing of Naming Services is sometimes called "name service switching". Under Solaris is configured in the file /etc/nsswitch.conf.

DNS can be queried interactively using the command nslookup. It is defined in STD 13, RFC 1034, RFC 1035, RFC 1591.

BIND is a common DNS server.

Info from Virtual Office, Inc..
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)

DNS

(Domain Name System) The Internet's system for converting alphabetic names into numeric IP addresses. For example, when a Web address (URL) is typed into a browser, DNS servers return the IP address of the Web server associated with that name. In this made-up example, the DNS converts the URL www.company.com into the IP address 204.0.8.51. Without DNS, you would have to type the series of four numbers and dots into your browser to retrieve the website, which you actually can do. See IP address.

A Hierarchy of Servers
The DNS system is a hierarchy of duplicated database servers worldwide that begin with the "root servers" for the top-level domains (.com, .net, .org, etc.). The root servers point to the "authoritative" servers located in ISPs, as well as in large companies, that turn the names into IP addresses; the process known as "name resolution." Using our www.company.com example, COMPANY.COM is the domain name, and WWW is the hostname. The domain name is the organization's identity on the Web, and the hostname is the name of the Web server within that domain (see WWW). See DNS records, zone file, reverse DNS, recursive DNS, DDNS, HOSTS file, mDNS, ping, root server and WINS.


Getting a Web Page
Converting the domain name (URL) in a Web browser into an IP address takes numerous queries. Along the way, there can be more name servers than are shown here.







Caching Speeds Up Delivery
If the ABC.COM Web address was previously requested by one of the ISP's customers, its IP address is cached (stored) in the DNS server and returns the IP address immediately. A user's computer also typically caches IP addresses, which can eliminate the DNS query all together if the address is already in the cache.
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References in periodicals archive ?
While the suffix is translated to .shabaka for the purposes of writing it in English, the domain namespace will only operate in Arabic script on the Internet and end users will only be able to use it by typing in Arabic.