Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis

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Nieuwenhuis, Ferdinand Domela

 

Born in 1846, in Amsterdam; died in 1919, in The Hague. Figure in the Dutch labor movement.

Nieuwenhuis was a Lutheran pastor but broke with the church in the early 1870’s and began to study social questions. He founded a Social Democratic association in Amsterdam in 1878; this marked the beginning of the organized socialist movement in the Netherlands. He also published the first Dutch socialist newspaper, Recht voor Allen. Nieuwenhuis corresponded with K. Marx and F. Engels. In 1882 he published Karl Marx: Capital and Labor, a brief, popularized exposition of the first volume of Marx’ Kapital, written in Dutch.

Nieuwenhuis was a parliamentary deputy from 1888 to 1891 and headed the Dutch delegations to the congresses of the Second International from 1889 to 1896. He adopted anarchist views during the 1890’s, and at the 1891 and 1893 congresses of the Second International proposed a general strike in response to any declaration of war by the bourgeois governments, rather than a day-to-day struggle against militarism. He came out against the proletariat’s use of parliament and against party discipline. In 1896 the London congress expelled Nieuwenhuis from the Second International. He took a pacifist stance during World War I (1914–18) and welcomed the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia.

References in periodicals archive ?
Juliette Roding, Eric Jan Sluijter, Bart Westerweel, Marijke van der Meij-Tolsma, and Eric Domela Nieuwenhuis (Leiden: Primavera Pers, 2003), 43-56.
Domela Nieuwenhuis, Geschiedenis der Amsterdamsche Luthersche Gemeente.
Around 1900 a famous Dutch anarchist, Domela Nieuwenhuis, said the same of `colonists', because he considered the experiments with different ways of living together that took place in the colonies as a waste of powers that should instead be used for the class struggle (Domela Nieuwenhuis 1921: 177; Poldervaart 1995).
Such an exploration immediately leads to the somewhat singular character of Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis (1846-1919), who led the Dutch socialist movement in the nineteenth century.
Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis was born in Amsterdam in 1846 into a highly respected family, with a long heritage of professors, barristers and preachers.
The Social Democratic Union, like the SDV, took the Gotha Programme as its manifesto, but it was the view of Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis which had the greatest influence on the union.
In 1880, Domela Nieuwenhuis wrote the following to Karl Marx: "If I am a socialist, then I have become one under the influence of your pioneering work Das Kapital" (Meyers, 1993, p.
One might ask how this could be reconciled with the figure of Domela Nieuwenhuis who, after all, referred to himself as following in Marx's footsteps?
In the 1890s, the isolation of the SDB was also precipitated by conflicts between Domela Nieuwenhuis and the Friesland People's Party which was a political organization stemming from the Friesian electoral movement in which a large number of Friesian organizations participated.
The different views became sharp contrasts, and some of the most prominent opponents came into direct conflict with both Domela Nieuwenhuis himself and the SDB leadership.
But, in spite of all, the rise of socialism in The Netherlands would have been unthinkable if not for Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis.
Domela Nieuwenhuis (From Christian to Anarchist; F.