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in flowers, the expansion of the corolla or corollalike perianth because of an increase in the number of petals. Doubleness is often the result of the transformation into petals of stamens (roses, peonies, ranunculuses, pomegranate) or pistils (Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, some violets, clover, some petunias). More rarely, doubleness results from the splitting of petals (fuchsia) or stamens (some Caryophyllaceae) or the increase in the number of circles in a simple perianth (some tulips and lilies). Double inflorescences are encountered among the Compositae; these result from the conversion of the interior bisexual flowers into ligulate, usually infertile flowers (dahlia, aster, chrysanthemum) or peripheral ligulate flowers into tubular flowers.

Horticulturalists can induce doubleness by hybridization or by changing the conditions of cultivation (for example, abundant feeding promotes doubleness). Doubleness is often accompanied by profound changes in the organs of the flower. For example, in Primula anthers develop on the ovarian wall and on the stigma; in fuchsias and roses ovules arise on stamens. Incomplete doubleness is most often encountered. Complete doubleness, with all the stamens and pistils converted into petals (such flowers do not yield seeds), rarely occurs. Although viable pollen is formed in double flowers whose extra petals have been formed from stamens, it is located in deeply hidden tissues and is destroyed the moment the flower opens. If gathered in time, the pollen is suitable for artificial pollination. Vegetative reproduction is often used in cultivating double flowers.


Fedorov, Al. A. Teratologiia i formoobrazovanie u rastenii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1958.
Zhukovskii, P. M. Botanika, 4th ed. Moscow, 1964.


References in periodicals archive ?
As concepts of doubleness, both idioms forego the vagaries of the inner life in favor of a notion of selfhood that is calibrated to the exterior world.
However, Krimmins really doesn't explain how Myles's sexual orientation affects her work, but notes that she has added a liberating tripleness to Fanning's doubleness.
He works doubleness throughout his readings of Breton's major writings from the 1920s and 1930s, (omitting, regrettably, Arcane 17 from 1944), combining a sensibility for Breton's poetics with Breton's practical presentation--his layout for Nadja, for example, that juxtaposes the image of the fountain with its description--and with Breton's biography, his place in surrealist history, and how he has been received by scholars, with a concentration on French scholars of surrealism.
Wilcox takes up threads of previous essays--Robbins on doubleness, Debicki on distancing, and Ugalde on performance--in his reading of Dioscuros (1982), a title evincing the mythological twins Castor and Pollux.
It is possible that what distinguishes poetic drama from prosaic drama is a kind of doubleness in the action, as if it took place on two planes at once .
Building on the point counterpoint structure of the two-part dead man poems, this poem works by statement and qualification upon qualification, context upon context, gathering all the perspectives suggested in earlier poems, especially that of the doubleness of the moment:
Chapter 1, "The Space of the Encyclopedia," describes the evolution of the form, charting within that story an essential doubleness epitomized by Rabelais's allegory of encyclopedism in Pantraguel (1535), which captures the way the encyclopedia appears as "alternately, and often in the same form, a spring of truth and a pit of error because one of [its] .
The doubleness of clothing, as an embodiment of the transformative energy of the city and as a repository of social memory, is important also since it points to the relative conservatism of Middleton's view, especially as embodied in his depiction of characters (the citizens, the gentlemen) whose costume arouses no comment at all because it merely represents and reinforces who they in fact are.
Instead, Gallego proposes that The Autobiography may be read as a work which, through rhetorical strategies of doubleness such as parody and irony, challenges "Duboisian representation of African American reality .
There are several examples of doubleness in the story and in the person of Hakon.
The doubleness of Irish culture and its relationship to the
I admire the quality of his desire, his passion, his erotic complexity, his openness, his doubleness, his sexual energy.