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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in flowers, the expansion of the corolla or corollalike perianth because of an increase in the number of petals. Doubleness is often the result of the transformation into petals of stamens (roses, peonies, ranunculuses, pomegranate) or pistils (Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, some violets, clover, some petunias). More rarely, doubleness results from the splitting of petals (fuchsia) or stamens (some Caryophyllaceae) or the increase in the number of circles in a simple perianth (some tulips and lilies). Double inflorescences are encountered among the Compositae; these result from the conversion of the interior bisexual flowers into ligulate, usually infertile flowers (dahlia, aster, chrysanthemum) or peripheral ligulate flowers into tubular flowers.

Horticulturalists can induce doubleness by hybridization or by changing the conditions of cultivation (for example, abundant feeding promotes doubleness). Doubleness is often accompanied by profound changes in the organs of the flower. For example, in Primula anthers develop on the ovarian wall and on the stigma; in fuchsias and roses ovules arise on stamens. Incomplete doubleness is most often encountered. Complete doubleness, with all the stamens and pistils converted into petals (such flowers do not yield seeds), rarely occurs. Although viable pollen is formed in double flowers whose extra petals have been formed from stamens, it is located in deeply hidden tissues and is destroyed the moment the flower opens. If gathered in time, the pollen is suitable for artificial pollination. Vegetative reproduction is often used in cultivating double flowers.


Fedorov, Al. A. Teratologiia i formoobrazovanie u rastenii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1958.
Zhukovskii, P. M. Botanika, 4th ed. Moscow, 1964.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nick, too, has his doublenesses. Initially Nick's father tells him that "all the people in this world haven't had the advantages you've had" (5), presumably material advantages.
Having stressed the doubleness of the encounter and thus for the attentive reader the potential depth of the association, the narrator admits that in actual personal appearance "He was not a bit like me, really" (17).
Consider the example of doubleness, one of the central idioms of black cultural studies.
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The form of beauty is distinguished from its mundane participations precisely by this lack of doubleness: "It is not beautiful this way and ugly that way, nor beautiful at one time and ugly at another, nor beautiful in relation to one thing and ugly in relation to another; nor is it beautiful here but ugly there, as it would be if it were beautiful for some people and ugly for others" (Symposium, trans.
Armstrong's reading of Howards End turns on the doubleness inherent in Forster's position as a closeted homosexual: he wants to belong to the larger community and at the same time is nervous about the homogeneity such belonging entails.
The first two of the eleven chapters are on Herodotus and Thucydides, seeking to identify a 'doubleness' in historical writing.
She overemphasizes the doubleness of Atwood's vision and the importance of genre in Atwood's writing, even going so far as (incorrectly) to label the novel as melodrama.
As Austerlitz deploys the concept, however, Du Boisian doubleness is actually tripleness: jazz is African American, American, and transnational.
Gasarian, the author of previous books on the poetry of Yves Bonnefoy and Charles Baudelaire, stresses how the fountain in Nadja is underscored by the illustration that accompanies its description according to a doubling that recurs throughout his readings, where an apparently single element--like the fountain, or the woman evoked in Breton's poem "Tournesol"--serves a double function and thus maintains a vibrant quality that links the literary to the real, suspending any opposition between the two, like Breton's "sublime point," which reconciles "the old antinomies." This doubleness is reciprocal, Gasarian explains: "Loin d'etre indifferent au reel, Breton voudrait que ses images surreelles s'y projettent, afin que les couleurs de la vie quotidienne en soient rehaussees" (123).
The duplicity, or doubleness, of Capella was discovered spectroscopically back in 1899.
The issue is important for Keach not simply because it cuts across two distinct flames of reference (politics and language) that are central to any understanding of Romantic literary institutions and practices, but also because it indicates something distinctive about the historical operation of those institutions and practices: What I want to insist on here is that in both political and linguistic frames of reference it is not only the doubleness of the arbitrary--its signifying at once absolute determination and utter indeterminacy--that characterizes the problematic I am attempting to define.