Dracunculiasis


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Related to Dracunculiasis: schistosomiasis

Dracunculiasis

 

helminthiasis caused by the roundworm (helminth) Dracunculus medinensis, a nematode that parasitizes mainly subcutaneous tissue. It attacks man and some animals (dogs, jackals, and so forth). It is widespread in some parts of Africa, India, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, and Brazil. In the USSR, it was observed in separate areas in Middle Asia; it was eradicated with the active help of the Soviet scientist L. M. Isaev and has not been reported since 1932.

Human beings become infected when they swallow the infested crustacean Cyclops with water. Nine to 14 months after infection, allergic symptoms (hives, attacks of asphyxia, and so forth), as well as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and fainting spells occur. A blister forms on the skin around the place where the helminth has penetrated. The parasite can often be seen in this place. The blister breaks a few days later, with the formation and subsequent sloughing off of a necrotic mass. When a person goes into the water (to bathe), the larva of the parasite escapes from the infected area into the water and enters the body of Cyclops.

Dracunculiasis may be complicated by synovitis (inflammation of the joint capsules), contractures, and so forth. Treatment consists in surgical removal of the helminth and administration of anti-inflammatory agents. Prevention consists in proper organization of the water supply system.

REFERENCE

Kassirskii, I. A., and N. N. Plotnikov. Bolezni zharkikh stran, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964.
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707 DECCAVISION 709 ARRENTES-DE-CORCIEUX (France) 711 HYDROCACHEXIA 750 DRACUNCULAR 751 HYDROCYCLIST 752 DRACUNCULIASIS 800 DECRESCENCE 801 DYSCRECCION 850 DECACYCLE 900 SCAMP 901 COMBINE 902 CHAMPIONSHIP 903 COMPANIONIZING 904 COMBATIVE 905 COUNTERMOVE 906 CENTUMVIRATE 907 CENTUMVIRI 909 CHAMOIX 910 CHEMOTAXES 911 CHEMOTAXIS 920 CAMAXAXE 940 CHROMOXYLOGRAPH 941 CHEMEXFOLIATE 942 CHEMEXFOLIATION 950 CAMEL 951 CARAMELISE 952 CARAMELISING 953 COSMOPOLANIZATION 954 COMPULSIVE 955 CHAMPLEVE 956 CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (St) 957 CYTOMEGALOVIURIA (Dor) 959 CONTEMPLATRLX 960 COMPLEX 961 COMPLEXITY 962 COMPLEXIFIES 964 COMPLEXIVE 1000 ME
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including V cholerae) Giardiasis Amebiasis (Entamoeba histolytica) Leishmaniasis Tuberculosis Brucellosis Leptospirosis Echinococcosis (hydatid disease) Typhus (epidemic, endemic) Relapsing fever, tick and louse-borne Trachoma Intestinal helminth infections (ascariasis, enterobiasis, trichuriasis) Hookworm infection (ancylostomiasis) Tapeworm infection (taeniasis) Strongyloidiasis Sandfly fever Other arboviral fevers Dengue fever Boutonneuse fever Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) Korean hemorrhagic fever Rift Valley fever Viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E) Meningococcal meningitis Syphilis (endemic, Bejel) Anthrax Q fever Rabies Plague Malaria Onchocerciasis Schistosomiasis Dracunculiasis Hymenolepiasis
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