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see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
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the overall genetic constitution of an organism/species as constituted by the chromosomal makeup of every member (the term arises from a combination of the terms ‘gene’ and ‘chromosome’). See also GENETICS, HUMAN GENOME PROJECT.



a haploid chromosome set; the sum total of the genes localized in the individual set of chromosomes of a given organism. The term was introduced in 1920 by the German biologist H. Winkler. The genome is usually understood to mean the sum of the genes concentrated in the chromosomes, without taking into account the hereditary determinants connected with the structures of cytoplasm. In the gametes of diploid organisms, as well as in the cells of haploid organisms, there is one genome; in the somatic cells of diploid organisms there are two genomes. With an increase in ploidy of the cells, the number of genomes grows. In fertilization, the genomes of the paternal and maternal gametes unite. As a rule, genomes obtained from paternal and maternal gametes are homologous. Homology between all or some genomes exists in all but distant hybrids. Absolute homology of two genomes may be defined as the coinciding of the linear arrangement of the genes in every chromosome. This coinciding ensures the possibility of the normal conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis.

Changes in the number of chromosomes (for example, polyploidy or an increase or loss of individual chromosomes) are called genomic mutations. An organism in which one and the same genome is repeated several times is called au-topolyploid. An organism in which different genomes are combined is called allopolyploid. Wheats may serve as an example of the allopolyploids. The haploid number of chromosomes in hard wheat is 14, in soft wheat, 21; and in einkorn, seven. By hybridization and the study of the conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis, it was ascertained that in all wheats there is one common genome (genome A) made up of seven chromosomes. In hard and soft wheat there are two common genomes (genomes A, B), each having seven chromosomes. Finally, in soft wheat, there is still another special genome (genome D), also made up of seven chromosomes. Thus, the genomic formula for einkorn is AA and for hard wheat it is AABB. Soft wheat, which has arisen in the process of evolution by the crossing of three different wild cereals and by the doubling of the number of chromosomes in the hybrids, has the genomic formula AABBDD.

In the experiments of the Soviet geneticist G. D. Kar-pechenko, radish and cabbage genomes were combined for the first time in a hybrid organism. By means of corresponding crossings and cytological analysis, the origin of separate genomes can be established. For example, V. A. Rybin obtained (resynthesized) a cultivated plum by crossing the cherry plum and the sloe; thus it was established that the genome of a plum includes cherry plum and sloe genomes. Of great significance in understanding the structure and functioning of the genome have been the establishment of the structure of the molecules of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and of the mechanisms of their replication, and the establishment of the means of “tracing” and transmitting genetic information.



The genetic endowment of a species.
The haploid set of chromosomes.


, genom
1. the full complement of genetic material within an organism
2. all the genes comprising a haploid set of chromosomes
References in periodicals archive ?
The draft sequence, often referred to as the "Book of Life" (1) represents the culmination of fifteen years of collaborative/ parallel efforts of scientists in more than 20 sequencing centers in six countries.
of California, Santa Cruz, Haussler was asked by Eric Lander in 1999 to develop the software tools for finding the genes in the human genome draft sequence.
Based on the information from the draft sequence of the human genome, researchers have estimated that the total number of human genes is approximately 30,000 to 40,000 (Claverie 2001).
Summary: TEHRAN (FNA)- An international team of scientists from Italy, France, New Zealand, Belgium and the US released a draft sequence of the domestic apple genome.
The draft sequence, which is about 98 percent complete, will allow researchers to pinpoint genes that are useful to pork production or are involved in immunity or other important physiological processes in the pig.
Next steps include putting the draft sequence together into a contiguous data set and working to better understand the functionality of all corn genes to enable new discoveries and extract the plant's full potential.
Earlier this year, USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) awarded the University of Illinois $10 million to obtain a draft sequence of the swine genome.
An epilogue by R Scott Hawley and an afterword by Ethan Brier provide perspective on the importance of this sequencing saga, which would turn out to be a prelude to the much anticipated announcement of the draft sequence of the human genome in February 2001.
When this initial stage is completed, a new consortium will produce a draft sequence of the entire cattle genome.
Dr Greg Elgar, a member of the UK team from the Medical Research Council's Human Genome Mapping Resource Centre in Cambridge, said, "Finishing the draft sequence of the pufferfish genome is the culmination of a decade of research and we're very excited about the implications this has for human disease.
As of August 10, 2000, draft sequence was available for 87% of the human genome (http://www.

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