dream

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dream,

mental activity associated with the rapid-eye-movement (REM) period of sleep. It is commonly made up of a number of visual images, scenes or thoughts expressed in terms of seeing rather than in those of the other senses or in words. Electroencephalograph studies, measuring the electrical activity of the brain during REM sleep, have shown that young adults dream for 1 1-2 to 2 hours of every 8-hour period of sleep. Infants spend an average of 50% of their sleep in the REM phase (they are believed to dream more often than adults) a figure which decreases steadily with age. During dreams, blood pressure and heart rate increase, and breathing is quickened, but the body is otherwise immobile. Studies have shown that sleepers deprived of dream-sleep are likely to become irritable and lose coordination skills. Unusually frightening dreams are called nightmares, and daydreams are constructed fantasies that occur while the individual is awake. Studies have demonstrated the existence of lucid dreaming, where the individual is aware that he is dreaming and has a degree of control over his dream.

Sigmund FreudFreud, Sigmund
, 1856–1939, Austrian psychiatrist, founder of psychoanalysis. Born in Moravia, he lived most of his life in Vienna, receiving his medical degree from the Univ. of Vienna in 1881.

His medical career began with an apprenticeship (1885–86) under J.
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, in his pioneering work The Interpretation of Dreams (1900, tr. 1913), was one of the first to emphasize dreams as keys to the unconscious. He distinguished the manifest content of dreams—the dream as it is recalled by the individual—from the latent content or the meaning of the dream, which Freud saw in terms of wish fulfillment. C. G. JungJung, Carl Gustav
, 1875–1961, Swiss psychiatrist, founder of analytical psychology. The son of a country pastor, he studied at Basel (1895–1900) and Zürich (M.D., 1902).
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 held that dreams function to reveal the unconscious mind, anticipate future events, and give expression to neglected areas of the dreamer's personality. Another theory, which PET scan studies appear to support, suggests that dreams are a result of electrical energy that stimulates memories located in various regions of the brain.

Bibliography

See J. A. Hobson, The Dreaming Brain (1988); M.-L. von Franz, Dreams (1991).

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dream

[drēm]
(psychology)
An involuntary series of visual, auditory, or kinesthetic images, emotions, and thoughts occurring in the mind during sleep or a sleeplike state, which take the form of a sequence of events or of a story, having a feeling of reality but totally lacking a feeling of free will.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

dream

1. 
a. mental activity, usually in the form of an imagined series of events, occurring during certain phases of sleep
b. (as modifier): a dream sequence
2. 
a. a sequence of imaginative thoughts indulged in while awake; daydream; fantasy
b. (as modifier): a dream world
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Integrating Jungian dream theory and CMT was useful for making sense of a Thai woman's recurring nightmares.
(35) The third class is the one which has been singled out in an attempt to explain the specific dream theory that influenced Apollonius in relation to Medea's dream.
In addition to dealing with issues currently central to Twain studies, such as race and gender, he also links metaphor to humor and dream theory. The book delves into the psychological aspects of metaphor to reveal the writer's attitudes and thoughts, showing how using metaphor as a guide to Twain reveals much about his composition process.
One need not be convinced by the suggestion that Boccaccio assigns Panfilo the task of elaborating a dream theory because his name evokes that of Macrobius's Pamphylus to recognize the value of Marchesi's insight regarding the striking parallels between oneirocritics and hermeneutics.
This hypothesis reflects the dominant opinion among dream researchers regarding the thematic generation of dreams and has supplanted Freudian dream theory (Domhoff, 2003).
Heynick received his medical education in the Netherlands (his dissertation was on Freud's dream theory), and holds degrees in linguistics and history from Columbia University and Hunter College, respectively.
These are that the first scene of Fernando de Rojas's Celestina, in which Calisto is rebuffed by Melibea, is a dream-vision that should be read in the light of medieval dream theory, that Calisto is in the grip of amor hereos, love sickness so intense that it endangers health and life itself, and that his melancholy temperament (in the technical medieval sense of a predominance of the melancholic humour or black bile) makes him particularly susceptible to amor hereos.