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art of compounding and dispensing drugs and medication. The term is also applied to an establishment used for such purposes. Until modern times medication was prepared and dispensed by the physician himself. In the 18th cent. the practice of pharmacy began to be separated from that of medicine. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science was founded in 1821, the first school of its kind in the United States. The American Pharmaceutical Association was formed in 1851. The progress of medicine, and therefore the expansion of pharmacy, has necessitated more stringent requirements in the training of pharmacists; it is of vital interest that medications be formulated accurately according to the physician's prescription. Schools of pharmacy are now associated with universities, and a degree in pharmacy follows a four-year course of instruction. Examination and licensing by the state is mandatory.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an establishment for the preparation, storage, and dispensing of medicines and other medical commodities. There is information that laboratories for the preparation of medicines existed in countries of the ancient world (China, Egypt, and Rome). The pharmacy as a government-regulated institution originated in Baghdad in the eighth century. The pharmacy of that period was characterized by the presence of laboratories where comparatively complex medications were prepared and synthesized. It was only in the 19th and 20th centuries that the development of the pharmaceutical industry caused laboratories in pharmacies to lose their importance.

There is no reliable information concerning the time of the founding of pharmacies in Russia. The first government-regulated tsarist pharmacy dates to 1581. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the highest government organ of medical and pharmaceutical affairs was the Aptekarskii prikaz (pharmaceutical department). In 1701, Peter I issued a decree on the organization of private pharmacies in Moscow. At the end of the 18th century there were about 100 pharmacies in Russia. Their activities were regulated by the Aptekarskii ustav (pharmaceutical charter; 1789). With the development of zemstvo (district assembly) institutions, zemstvo pharmacies began to be established. By 1914 there were 4,791 pharmacies in Russia, including about 200 zemstvo pharmacies. After the Great October Revolution, the Council of People’s Commissars issued a decree (Dec. 28, 1918) on the nationalization of pharmacies; they were transferred to the authority of the People’s Commissariat of Public Health.

General management of pharmacies is carried out by the Pharmaceutical Board of the Ministry of Public Health of the USSR through pharmaceutical boards of the oblasts (krais) and republics. As of Jan. 1, 1970, there were over 20,000 pharmacies in the USSR (including municipal, central, regional in rural areas, and interhospital), existing at government expense. In addition, there were more than 3,000 hospital pharmacies on the government budget, as well as pharmacies of individual departments.

Special premises and equipment are set aside in the pharmacy for the preparation of medicines. All medicines dispensed by the pharmacy are subject to control. The preparation and dispensation of medications, their control, and their storage are performed according to the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR by persons with specialized pharmaceutical training. In capitalist countries, pharmacies are private-enterprise institutions. In most countries, prices for medications are not regulated.


Zmeev, L. F. Pervye apteki v Rossii. Moscow, 1887.
50 let sovetskogo zdravookhraneniia: 1917–1967. Moscow, 1967. Pages 176–182.




a combined scientific and practical discipline concerned with discovering, obtaining, investigating, storing, preparing, and dispensing medical products. Pharmacy and pharmacology together make up the science of drugs. Pharmacy includes pharmaceutical chemistry, drug preparation and packaging, forensic chemistry, pharmacognosy, and the organization and economics of pharmacy. A promising area of pharmaceutical research is biological pharmacy, which studies the relationship between the effect of a drug and the way it is manufactured and administered. Pharmacy specialists in the USSR are called farmatsevty. Pharmacy institutions include pharmacies, warehouses, analytic laboratories, research institutes, laboratories and enterprises that produce drugs, and establishments that collect and process medicinal plants.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Also known as pharmaceutics.
The art and science of the preparation and dispensation of drugs.
A place where drugs are dispensed.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


the practice or art of preparing and dispensing drugs
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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According to Nielsen's global home care report, 28% of Americans purchase home care and cleaning products from drug stores. Hispanic consumers spend significantly more on home care products than the average consumer, primarily on items like disposable bags and laundry detergent.
The FDA chief also advised the public against availing themselves of unauthorized immunization services, and warned drug stores against conducting such activities until the appropriate regulation and authorization had been issued.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey of drug stores located in Karachi was conducted from May to December 2013.
Collier Drug Stores, which operates six stores in northwest Arkansas, had its start in 1917, when M.M.
According to the IRI Times & Trends report, "Channel Migration 2007: A New Cross-Channel Battleground Emerges," while consumers have steadily decreased their total number of shopping trips during the past five years -- consolidating trips in response to high gas prices and a greater ability to get more of what they need in a single stop -- drug stores have managed to increase trips.
Lebhar-Friedman president/ceo Roger Friedman said the purchase of Dowden "brings us closer to those goals (diversification of revenue streams and increased opportunities) by providing deeper access to the rapidly growing healthcare market, a market with which we are already familiar through our Drug Store News products."
The retail drug store chain signed a 25-year lease for 8,500 square feet at the property, owned by Textport Fabric Corp.
The company was founded in 1917 when Mel Collier opened Red Cross Drug Store on the north side of the downtown Fayetteville square.
Another gripe with drug stores: 50% of our panelists (64% of those responding) agreed that "drug stores are very reluctant to take back prescription drugs that don't work or cause side effects." This is a sticky, and highly regulated, area for drug stores but the strong response shows that many consumers think that drugs that don't work should be returnable.
According to Davidowitz, the trend is a shift of market share from drug stores to mass outlets.
In 1990 prescription sales grew by 14 per cent over the previous year, to $14 billion dollars, and this accounted for no less than 52 per cent of the entire growth of sales in chain drug stores. The growth in prescription sales is only partially explained by the 10 per cent increase in prescription drug prices and, therefore, represents real growth.