in socialist countries, the order of subordination of bodies of government administration by which the lower administrative body acts under the simultaneous and direct leadership of both a corresponding local representative government body (or administrative body of general jurisdiction) and a higher body of general (or specialized) jurisdiction. For example, in the USSR, the oblast administration of agriculture works under the direct leadership of both the executive committee of the oblast soviet of working people’s deputies and the ministry of agriculture of the corresponding Union republic. As V. I. Lenin wrote, dual subordination is necessary wherever really existing inevitable diversities have to be taken into consideration: “Agriculture in Kaluga Gubernia differs from that in Kazan Gubernia. The same thing can be said about industry: and it can be said about administration, or management, as a whole” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 45, p. 198).
Dual subordination is used on different levels of administration. Article 101 of the Constitution of the USSR states that the executive bodies of the soviets of working people’s deputies are directly accountable to the soviet of working people’s deputies which elected them as well -as to the executive body of the superior soviet of working people’s deputies. According to Article 52 of the Constitution of the RSFSR, the Union-republic ministries of the RSFSR direct the branches of the government administration of the RSFSR entrusted to them, being themselves subordinate to the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR as well as to the corresponding Union-republic ministries of the USSR. Similar articles are contained in constitutions of other Union republics. By virtue of dual subordination, higher bodies in relation to lower ones have the right to direct and control their activities; to elect or appoint supervisory staff of these bodies; and to repeal, suspend, or change legal acts adopted by these bodies. Legally, dual subordination is confirmed by regulations referring to the administrative body which is under dual subordination.
V. G. VISHNIAKOV