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(bīăth`lŏn), sport in which cross-country skiers race across hilly terrain, occasionally stopping to shoot, prone or standing as required, with rifles at sets of fixed targets. The biathlon features the 10-km (6.2-mi) sprint, in which contestants shoot at two sets of targets; the 12.5-km (7.8-mi) pursuit, in which contestants shoot four times and start at intervals determined by their finish in the sprint; the 20-km (12.5-mi) race with four shooting stops; a 30 contestant, 15-km (9.3-mi) mass start race with four shooting stops; and a relay race with four 7.5-km (4.7-mi) legs and two shooting stops per leg. The women's races are shorter: a 7.5-km (4.7-mi) sprint, a 10-km (6.2-mi) pursuit, a 15-km (9.3-mi) race, a 12.5-km (7.8-mi) mass start race, and a relay with 6-km (3.7-mi) legs. In the mixed relay, two women and then two men ski a leg of the appropriate length. Competitors are penalized for each missed target by having a standard length added to the course distance that they must complete, or by having a minute added to their time. The control of fine motor skills and breathing required to shoot after the skiing segment makes this a demanding sport. Biathlon competition developed from the military training of ski troops. The sport first became an official part of the Winter Olympics in 1960. Biathlon has also recently acquired meaning as applied to a combined two-sport competition, such as running and swimming.



a modern winter two-event competition—ski racing with riflery. While covering a distance of 20 km, the athlete makes five shots each at four firing ranges between the fifth and 18th kilometers: twice at a target 30 cm in diameter (while upright) and twice at a target 15 cm in diameter (while prostrate). The distance to the targets is 150 m. For each miss there is a penalty of two minutes, which are added to the time shown in the ski race. In 1960 the biathlon was incorporated into the program of the winter Olympic games. The winners of the Olympic games have been K. Lestander, a Swede (1960, Squaw Valley), Soviet athlete V. Melan’in (1964, Innsbruck), and M. Solberg (1968,Grenoble). At the Xth Olympics (1968, Grenoble) the 4 × 7.5-km relay was won by the team of Soviet biathlonists (A. Tikhonov, N. Puzanov, V. Mamatov, and V.Gundartsev). Among Soviet athletes, world champions in the biathlon have been V. Melan’in (1959), V. Mamatov (1967), A. Tikhonov (1969), and A. Ushakov (juniors, 1969). In the world championship (1969) the 4 × 7.5-km relay was won by Soviet athletes A. Tikhonov, V. Mamatov, V. Gundartsev, and R. Safin, and the 3 x 7.5-km relay was won by Soviet juniors V. Tolkachev, A. Tagirov, and A. Ushakov.

References in periodicals archive ?
Also making Go for GoldAA-a project of Powerball Marketing and Logistics Corp, a Filipino company that engages in fund-raising programs for government and institutions-proud was Raymund Torio of Lingayen (Pangasinan), who clinched bronze in the Putrajaya duathlon.
Former student Kamen Martin was second in last year's British Duathlon Championships
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The event also acted as a qualifier for the European Duathlon Championships (Standard race) and World Duathlon Championships (Standard and Sprint race).
We call for all ladies and girls to participate in the duathlon, which is a fun, challenging and rewarding activity.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a laboratory based duathlon simulation, completed at the highest attainable intensity, on final run performance.
Marie Drozdowicz, from Morpeth, who is taking part in the World <B Championship duathlon event in Adelaide, Australia Neil Brinsdon Photography
The IPA cooperates with the International Triathlon Union in the development and growth of the duathlon as a sport in general, and the long distance duathlon in particular.
Goodwin, a Zoot sponsored athlete, started the year in fine fashion as he won the British Junior Duathlon Championship at the Rockingham race circuit.
Bahrain newly appointed National Coach, Vicent Beltran, commented: "This was the perfect venue to host our first duathlon and all those who took part seemed to have a great time.
In addition to the main Wheelathon there will also be a duathlon exclusively for children starting at 4pm.
The 11th anniversary edition of the Wheelathon is set to attract even more big-hearted pedallers and supporters on Saturday, February 21, to the Bahrain International Circuit with the attraction of a cycling and running duathlon race for young athletes aged between 13 and 17.