Duma


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Wikipedia.
Related to Duma: State Duma

duma

(do͞o`mä), Russian name for a representative body, particularly applied to the Imperial Duma established as a result of the Russian Revolution of 1905. The parliamentary organization of 1906, largely the work of Count WitteWitte, Count Sergei Yulyevich
, 1849–1915, Russian premier. A railway administrator, he became minister of communications (1892) and minister of finance (1892–1903).
..... Click the link for more information.
, provided for a state council (an upper house, with some members appointed by the czar and others elected by the nobility, the zemstvoszemstvo
[Rus., from zemlya=land], local assembly that functioned as a body of provincial self-government in Russia from 1864 to 1917. The introduction of the zemstvo system was one of the major liberal reforms in the reign of Alexander II.
..... Click the link for more information.
, the clergy, trade and industry, and the university faculties) and for the Duma (a lower house elected by a system of suffrage that was neither equal nor direct); no law was to be passed without the consent of the Duma. When Czar Nicholas II found that a majority of opposition candidates had been elected in 1906, he dissolved the Duma after 10 weeks. The second Duma (1907), even more hostile to the government, was also dissolved. The third Duma (1907–12) was the product of an electoral change that made it the tool of the government. It did, however, extend the peasants' rights and enact some labor laws. The fourth Duma (1912–17) had a conservative majority; called at rare and brief intervals, it was in constant conflict with the czar. It was dissolved by Nicholas in Mar., 1917 (Feb., O. S.), but refused to disband. Revolution (see Russian RevolutionRussian Revolution,
violent upheaval in Russia in 1917 that overthrew the czarist government. Causes

The revolution was the culmination of a long period of repression and unrest.
..... Click the link for more information.
) broke out, and the Duma, after electing a provisional committee, disintegrated. The committee and the Petrograd soviet appointed the provisional government. The current State Duma (est. 1993) is the popularly elected lower house of the Russia Federation's legislature.

Bibliography

See V. A. Maklakov, The First State Duma (tr. 1964); A. Levin, The Second Duma (2d ed. 1966).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Duma

 

an epic-lyrical genre of Ukrainian vocal musical folklore.

Historical in content, the duma originated and developed under the social conditions of cossack military democracy of the 15th-17th century. It is characterized by an absence of division into stanzas, free rhythm, improvised development, and harmonic originality (augmented seconds in the melody). Dumy were an important part of the repertoire of blind kobzari (folk singers who accompanied themselves on the kobza, a type of plucked string instrument) and bandura (another type of plucked string instrument) players. They were performed in a melodic recitative to the accompaniment of the kobza or bandura. In each performance improvised elements were added to the text and the music.

The oldest dumy, of the 15th to early 17th century (such as those about Marusia Boguslavka and the escape of three brothers from Azov), tell about the suffering of the Ukrainian prisoners enslaved by the Tatars and the Turks. The lofty patriotism of fighters against foreign oppression is extolled in the dumy about Cossack Golota, Fedor Bezrodnyi, Ivas Udovichenko, Old Mat’iash, and Samoila Koshka. A large number of dumy originated soon after the Ukrainian People’s War of Liberation of 1648-54 against oppression by the Polish nobles (dumy about the Korsun’ victory, the campaign in Moldavia, Bogdan Khmel’nitskii and Barabash, Ivan Bogun, and Maksim Krivonos). The struggle against the Ukrainian starshina (the prosperous cossacks) and against the Polish landlords has been reflected in a number of dumy with clearly social implications. There were also dumy about everyday life.

In the 19th century there were virtually no new dumy. Most of the dumy known today were written by such outstanding kobzari as Ivan Strichka, Ostap Veresai, Andrei Shut, Ivan Kravchenko, and Fedor Kholodnyi. Extensive transcription began only in the 19th century. Research on the duma was conducted by N. Tsertelev, M. Maksimovich, P. Lukashevich, A. Metlinskii, P. Kulish and especially V. Antonovich and M. Dragomanov. During the Soviet period this research has been carried on by M. Ryl’skii, D. Revutskii, A. Beletskii, and P. Tychina. Dwmy have been composed about the Great October Socialist Revolution and the heroes of the Civil and the Great Patriotic wars.

TEXTS

Istoricheskie pesni malorusskogo naroda, vols. 1-2. Kiev, 1874-75. (With notes by V. Antonovich and M. Dragomanov.)
Kolessa, F. Melodii ukrains’kykh narodnikh dum, series 1-2. L’vov, 1910-13.
Kolessa, F. Ukrains’ki narodni dumy. Kiev, 1927.
Revuts’kyi, D. Ukrains’ki narodni dumy ta pisni istorychni, 2nd ed. Kharkov-Kiev, 1930. (With bibliography.)
Dumy. Kiev, 1959. (Preface by M. Stel’makh.)

REFERENCES

Lysenko, N. V. “Kharakteristika muzykal’nykh osobennostei malorusskikh dum i pesen.” Zapiski iugo-zapadnogo otdeleniia, russkogo geograficheskogo obshchestva, vols. 1-2, Kiev, 1873-74.
Zhitetskii, P. Mysli o narodnykh malorusskikh dumakh. Kiev, 1893.
Franko, I. Studii nad ukrains’kymy narodnymy pisniamy. L’vov, 1913.
Kolessa, F. Pro genezu ukrains’kykh narodnykh dum. L’vov, 1922.
Ukrains’ka narodna poetychna tvorchist’, vols. 1-2. Kiev, 1958.

Duma

 

the name for various representative, elective, legislative, consultative, and administrative institutions in tsarist Russia, including the Boyar Duma, the municipal duma, and the State Duma.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Petrov said that he does not rule out that ratification of the border treaty would be postponed until the next composition of the State Duma has taken office.
Chairman State Duma Sergey Naryshkin said that Russian Duma also desires to strengthen its relations with Pakistani legislature.
The Duma's abrupt action was taken in retaliation for U.S.
MEPs from across the political spectrum seemed to agree with the assessment that the Duma elections were not fair and transparent.
Furthermore, no other Duma attracted such a voluminous pamphlet response; an indication that for contemporaries the battles over what a constitutional Russia would entail were fought out and resolved around the first Duma.
Petersburg and another 50 regions in the European part of Russia with a total of 110 million Russian citizens, including two million expatriates around the world, eligible to vote in the parliamentary election to fill 450 seats in the State Duma in the next five years.
We see the Duma's upcoming decision being very important for Tatneft, since the issue at stake would affect 5% of 2012E EBITDA.
MP Raad and his accompanying delegation are in Russia upon the invitation of Russia's Duma Committee for Middle Eastern Relations.
Dumas kindly turned down the request, stating that he was busy and was not good at feedback.
But without him there would be no "Education of Ernie Dumas: Chronicles of the Arkansas Political Mind."
Sur la page officielle du club, la JSK a annonce samedi dernier, officiellement sa separation a l'amiable avec le coach Franck Dumas. Selon ce communique, cette separation serait decidee au vu [beaucoup moins que] de la divergence sur la vision des choses avec les nouvelles donnees qui se presentent desormais dans le fonctionnement et les perspectives du club, confirme finalement le depart de Monsieur Franck Dumas [beaucoup plus grand que].