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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



sand reliefs formed by the wind.

Usually the term “dunes” is applied to all sand build-ups regardless of zonal and climatic conditions; in the USSR the term refers only to forms of nondesert sand relief: on the shores of seas and lakes, on river terraces, in morainic aprons, and so forth. In contrast to the barchans developed in deserts, dunes (in this sense) have a convex form on the steep side, not on the sloping side, and the “tails” are located behind the dunes, on the windward side. The sloping side faces upwind and has an angle of inclination of 8°-20°; the downwind side approaches the angle of repose of dry (32°-33°) or moist sand (up to 40°). Dunes range from 5 to 30 m high and more [on the Courland Spit in the Baltic Sea (in Lithuania) a dune 58 m high is known; in Les Landes, on the coast of the Bay of Biscay (in France) there is one 97 m high]. Dunes may shift in the direction of the prevailing wind at a speed of 10 m a year, depending on the weight of the sand and the wind velocity.

The evolution of nondesert dunes, with a prevailing wind direction, is expressed in the gradual transition from coastal or riverside dune banks, which as a rule are transverse to the wind, into staple-shaped, parabolic, and hairpin-shaped forms. Under seasonal winds directed at angles of less than 90°, spear-shaped dunes form. In areas with convective or interfering wind patterns, rounded, ridge-like dunes develop, with a scattering from the center toward the periphery. Moreover, with time simple shapes turn into complex ones. The movement of denuded dunes, which cause great harm to the economy, is being combatted by the planting of wooded vegetation (mostly pines).


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The four-year project will conserve almost 7,000 hectares (17,300 acres) of sand dunes - some 35% of the total for England and Wales - and improve access for the public, who will be urged to get involved in monitoring wildlife and dune changes.
A SCHEME to reverse declines in wildlife-rich dune habitats by getting the sands shifting again has been given a PS4m funding boost.
Nicola Hutchinson, from wildlife charity Plantlife, said: "This project will radically revitalise our ailing dunes and the wealth of wildflowers they harbour."
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In addition to the new fitness center, Hammock Dunes Club launched a full program of on-demand and personalized fitness instruction, including spinning, yoga, weight training and aqua aerobics, which is led by the club's health and fitness director, Walter Sam.
The festivities, he said, shall be graced by President Dr Mokgweetsi Masisi accompanied by Vice President Slumber Tsogwane and ministers who will today (May 10) tour Lobu Small Stock Farm and attend the Khawa Dune Challenge and Cultural Festival in Khawa village.
Awadalla said in a statement: "Our partnership with Dunes Hotel Apartments further reinforces our growth strategy to expand our footprint in the UAE with further openings in Dubai, and Sharjah, as well as other properties across the region in Saudi Arabia and Egypt - taking our total portfolio to 20 properties by the end of 2020."
Marshalls help participants enroute Moreeb dune in Abu Dhabi at Gulf News Overnighter Fun Drive 2019.
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The dunes cover about 775 square miles (2,000 square km), roughly the size of Tokyo.