Dunkirk


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Dunkirk

(dŭn`kûrk), Fr. Dunkerque, town (1990 pop. 71,071), Nord dept., N France, on the North Sea. It is a leading French port with daily ferry service to Ramsgate and Dover, England. It is a steel center; oil refining, shipbuilding, food processing, and the manufacture of electrical equipment are also important. Among Dunkirk's chief exports are construction materials, steel products, cement, fruits and vegetables, sugar, fertilizer, and pre-assembled structures. Probably founded c.7th cent. A.D. and often fortified, Dunkirk played a key role in the struggles in Europe that extended over centuries; it was ruled successively by Flanders, Burgundy, Austria, France, England, and Spain. Ceded briefly in the 1650s to Oliver Cromwell, it was bought back permanently from Charles II by Louis XIV in 1662. The town withstood an Anglo-Dutch bombardment in 1694 and an English siege in 1793. During the 19th cent. improvements were made on the harbor, and Dunkirk grew in commercial importance. During World War II, more than 300,000 Allied troops who were cut off from retreat on land by the German breakthrough to the French Channel ports were evacuated (May 26–June 4, 1940) from Dunkirk. The retreat was carried out by all kinds of available British craft, some manned by civilian volunteers, and was protected by the Royal Air Force. It is considered one of the epic actions of naval history.

Bibliography

See studies by P. Turnball (1978), J. Harris (1988), and H. Sebag-Montefiore (2006).


Dunkirk,

city (1990 pop. 13,989), Chautauqua co., SW N.Y., on Lake Erie; founded c.1800, inc. as a city 1880. It is a port of entry and trades extensively with other Great Lakes' ports. Dunkirk, located in the grape belt, produces wines and other grape products. The city also manufactures steel, food products, and clothing. In 1946, Dunkirk developed a program to help DunkirkDunkirk
, Fr. Dunkerque, town (1990 pop. 71,071), Nord dept., N France, on the North Sea. It is a leading French port with daily ferry service to Ramsgate and Dover, England.
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, France (for which it was named), recover from World War II. Other U.S. cities followed Dunkirk's example and established a program, called the One World Plan, to aid war-damaged European cities.
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Dunkirk

340,000 British troops evacuated against long odds (1941). [Eur. Hist.: Van Doren, 475]
See: Escape

Dunkirk

combined military-civilian operation rescued 340,000 British troops (1940). [Br. Hist.: Van Doren, 475]
See: Rescue
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
According to The Hollywood Reporter, Nolan's World War II action-drama 'Dunkirk' is the shortest movie of his career after his first film, 1998's 'Following,' insiders confirm.
The parade began not far from Dunkirk's main harbour, winding through the streets and past the famous "little ships" before ending in the town centre.
This May they're hoping that the remaining dozen or so living veterans of that Dunkirk horror will make it back to the French shoreline to officially commemorate the event.
Next year marks the 75th anniversary of the World War II evacuation of 340,000 British troops from Dunkirk's beaches.
Site Notes: The main pier, reached by turning toward the lake off NY 5 at Central Avenue in Dunkirk, is the primary vantage point for bird-watching.
On his reappearance that autumn Dunkirk beat Mill House by 15 lengths at level weights in the 2m Frogmore Chase at Ascot, and he then demonstrated the full extent of his greatness by conceding lumps of weight to high-class rivals in the 2m Mackeson (now Paddy Power) Gold Cup at Cheltenham.
The British pulled back from Arras and MacForce was deputed to hold the hill township of Cassel while the main British forces continued on to Dunkirk. Johnny and his mates experience aerial attacks and shelling, managing to stem the German advance until the order which came rather late, to retreat.
Mona's Queen was racing to the rescue of beleaguered British and Allied troops escaping German military forces at Dunkirk when she struck a mine on May 29, 1940.
We now know that individual French units stood and fought as heroically at Sedan as did individual British units at Dunkirk. Likewise, the author displays no understanding that the slow and methodical French reactions were products of the evolution of interwar French doctrine, as ably documented elsewhere by Robert Doughty.
The author's memories of seaside holidays in the 1960s are contrasted with his uncle's memories of the Dunkirk seaside of 1940, using alternating double-page spreads, the pictures of each era mirroring each other.
Scores of former Second World War soldiers attended a ceremony at the Allied Memorial on Dunkirk seafront, with 50 of the original "little ships" that took part in the operation offshore.