Dunmore, John Murray, 4th earl of

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Dunmore, John Murray, 4th earl of

Dunmore, John Murray, 4th earl of, 1732–1809, British colonial governor of Virginia, a Scottish peer. Appointed governor of New York in 1770, he remained there for about 11 months before being transferred to Virginia. In 1774 he led the Virginians in a campaign against Native Americans usually known as Lord Dunmore's War. Sending one expedition under Andrew Lewis west by the Kanawha valley, he personally headed the northern column, which set out from Fort Dunmore at Pittsburgh. Lewis defeated the Native Americans at Point Pleasant, and Dunmore negotiated a final treaty with them in the Scioto valley. When the news of Lexington and Concord reached Virginia, Dunmore, who twice before had dissolved the house of burgesses for its procolonist stand, removed the colony's gunpowder stores to a man-of-war. The aroused Virginians made him pay for the powder. Threats against his life forced him to take refuge (June, 1775) on shipboard where he declared martial law and sent out loyal troops, who were defeated at Great Bridge on Dec. 9, 1775. In Jan., 1776, he attacked Norfolk from the sea, but in July he was forced to return to England. From 1787 to 1796 he was governor of the Bahamas.

Bibliography

See R. G. Thwaites and L. P. Kellogg, ed., Documentary History of Dunmore's War, 1774 (1905).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Johnson's sudden demise at age 59 in July of 1774 set the stage for what is known as Lord Dunmore's war. Ohio Valley Shawnees, Delawares and Mingos (expatriate western Iroquois) clashed with 100 English Virginia militia at Point Pleasant, West Virginia on October 10, 1774.
Kellogg also wrote "Early Narratives of the Northwest 1634-1699," "Frontier Advance on the Upper Ohio 1778-1779," "Frontier Retreat on the Upper Ohio 1779-1781" and wrote with Reuben Gold Thwaites, "Documentary History of Dunmore's War, 1774" and "The Revolution on the Upper Ohio, 1775-1777," all books hard to find and groundbreaking studies.
Most Americans don't realize it, but the Revolution really began in Virginia a year before Paul Revere's Ride when Virginia riflemen from the frontier counties, fed up with Indian massacres which the British authorities ignored, defied British authorities, marched against the Shawnees, in what was called "Lord Dunmore's War," and beat the stuffing out of them.
"[Jefferson] must have been made aware of border warfare from an early age," Wallace assumes as he grapples with an explanation of Jefferson's interpretation of Lord Dunmore's War (p.
For instance, he makes several references to the Point Pleasant expedition of 1774, but he does not lay out the campaign's purpose or significance in the context of Lord Dunmore's War. As a result, Gentry and Common Folk should be appreciated as a detailed research report for well-informed historical specialists, who in turn will not only find its contents informative but its conclusions worthy of discussion and debate.
Principal wars: Lord Dunmore's War (1774); American Revolutionary War (1775-1783).
Clark was born in Virginia and served (1774) in Lord Dunmore's War. During the Revolution he obtained authority from Patrick Henry, governor of Virginia, to raise a force for the conquest of the Northwest.
Born near Charlottesville, Virginia (November 19, 1752), the son of John and Ann Rogers Clark, and the elder brother of William (of Lewis and Clark fame); received little formal education but learned surveying from his grandfather; served as a scout during Lord Dunmore's War (May-October 1774); settled in Kentucky and became a prominent figure there; organized frontiersmen for defense against pro-British Indian raids (1776-1777); returned to Virginia and persuaded Gov.
He was long a friend of the English, but the murder of his family in the Yellow Creek massacre of April 1774 led to his participation in Lord Dunmore's War against the settlers.
Sources: Thwaites, Reuben Gold, and Louise Phelps Kellogg, eds., A Documentary History of Dunmore's War, 1774.
Principal wars: French and Indian War (1754-1763); Lord Dunmore's War (1774); American Revolutionary War (1775-1783).