Durham

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Durham,

officially

County Durham,

county (1991 pop. 589,941), 1,015 sq mi (2,629 sq km), NE England, on the North Sea between the Tees and Tyne rivers; administratively, Durham is a unitary authority (since 2009). The administrative center is DurhamDurham,
town (1991 pop. 38,105), county seat of Durham, NE England, on the sides of a hill nearly encircled by the Wear River. The town's small factories produce organs and carpets. Noteworthy is the castle (1072), now occupied by part of the Univ. of Durham (founded 1832).
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, site of one of England's finest Norman cathedrals. The region is low-lying along the coast, rising inland to the PenninesPennines
or Pennine Chain,
mountain range, sometimes called the "backbone of England," extending c.160 mi (260 km) from the Cheviot Hills on the Scottish border to the Peak District in Derbyshire.
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. A large portion of the land area is devoted to agriculture. Dairy farming is common; cattle and sheep are raised. Oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, and turnips are grown. Industry is concentrated along the Tyne and the Tees. Shipbuilding (also along the Wear River) and coal mining were historically important. Electrical goods, clothing, textiles, paint, organs, and plastics are the chief products of Durham's light industry. The area was occupied by the Romans and subsequently became part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of NorthumbriaNorthumbria, kingdom of
, one of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in England. It was originally composed of two independent kingdoms divided by the Tees River, Bernicia (including modern E Scotland, Berwick, Roxburgh, E Northumberland, and Durham) and Deira (including the North and East
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. From pre-Norman times until 1836, the bishops of Durham intermittently exercised palatine powers over the county. The powers were most important during the Middle Ages.

Durham,

town (1991 pop. 38,105), county seat of Durham, NE England, on the sides of a hill nearly encircled by the Wear River. The town's small factories produce organs and carpets. Noteworthy is the castle (1072), now occupied by part of the Univ. of Durham (founded 1832). In 995 the relics of St. Cuthbert were brought to Durham (then Dunholme), and a church was built as his shrine. The present cathedral, begun on the same site in 1093, is considered the finest example of Norman architecture in the country. It contains the tomb of the Venerable Bede (d. 735).

Durham

(dûr`ăm), city (1990 pop. 136,611), seat of Durham co., N central N.C., in the Piedmont area; inc. 1867. Once a major tobacco and textile center, Durham is a research and education center. Manufacturers include medical, computer, electronic, and telecommunications equipment; plastic, paper, and lumber products; and aircraft components. The area was settled c.1750. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston surrendered nearby to Gen. William T. Sherman during the Civil War. After the war the tobacco industry began with James B. DukeDuke, James Buchanan,
1856–1925, American industrialist, processor of tobacco products, b. near Durham, N.C. The Civil War left the Duke family poor, but James and his brother, Benjamin, helped their father in building up a local tobacco-processing business, which soon
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 as the leading manufacturer. Economic growth was spurred with the establishment (1959) of the Research Triangle ParkResearch Triangle Park,
research, business, medical, and educational complex situated in central North Carolina. It has an area of 6,900 acres (2,795 hectares) and is 8 × 2 mi (13 × 3 km) in size. Named for the triangle formed by Duke Univ. in Durham, the Univ.
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, in the triangular area between Durham, Chapel Hill, and Raleigh, which utilizes the concentration of university research talent in those three cities. Durham is the seat of Duke Univ., North Carolina Central Univ., and Durham Technical Community College. Of interest are the Sarah P. Duke Memorial Gardens and the Children's Nature Museum. The American Dance Festival is held in the city each summer.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Durham

 

a city in the southern USA in North Carolina. Population, 177,000 (1966), of which 30 percent is black. It is a center of tobacco processing (production of cigarettes) and of the hosiery industry. It is the home of Duke University.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Durham

1. a county of NE England, on the North Sea: rises to the N Pennines in the west: the geographical and ceremonial county includes the unitary authorities of Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees (both part of Cleveland until 1996) and Darlington (created in 1997). Administrative centre: Durham. Pop. (excluding unitary authorities): 494 200 (2003 est.). Area (excluding unitary authorities): 2434 sq. km (940 sq. miles)
2. a city in NE England, administrative centre of Co. Durham, on the River Wear: Norman cathedral; 11th-century castle (founded by William the Conqueror), now occupied by the University of Durham (1832). Pop.: 42 939 (2001)
3. a rare variety of shorthorn cattle
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
People's IQ differences stem largely from the extent to which individuals' social and emotional background prepares them for mental tests, proposes Ken Richardson of Open University in Durham, England. In a review of the scientific literature on g and IQ, he concludes that middle-class children draw on extensive experience in manipulating written words and numbers to recognize the nature of nonverbal intelligence problems.
Howell John Harris is a Reader in History at the University of Durham, England, who has been a prominent participant in American historical debates ever since he published The Right to Manage: Industrial Relations Policies of American Business in the 1940s (Madison, 1982).
`This is Lucy Lambton from Durham, England, who has come to Mississippi', said Lucius.
In celebration of Queen Elizabeth's Golden Jubilee, villagers from Esh, near Durham, England, have reprinted a collection of Esh-related stories originally published in 1914.
This multi-author volume is the result of a conference held in Durham, England, in 1998.
In April 1998, DSA's touring vocal ensemble visited Durham's sister city, Durham, England, and this scholarship fund helped to make the trip a reality for every member of the ensemble.
of Durham, England, has formed a strategic partnership with the technology division of BG plc, in a move that company officials said is evidence of ISA's burgeoning relationship with global market leaders.
Ranald Michie is reader in economic history at the University of Durham, England. He is the author of numerous books and articles on financial history, including The City of London: Continuity and Change since 1850 (1992).
The book is excellently organized and edited by historians Nelson Lichtenstein, currently at the University of Virginia and a former faculty member of the Catholic University of America, and Howell John Harris, a lecturer at the University of Durham, England, who also contributes to the publication; the list of chapter authors is a virtual "who's who" of labor scholarship.
Robert Lilly, professor of sociology at Northern Kentucky University in Highland Heights, Ky., and visiting professor, sociology and social policy, University of Durham, Durham, England.
Slightly revising her 2014 doctoral dissertation at the University of Durham, England, Leese investigates how the Pauline corpus might contribute to a robust creation and ecotheological theology.